CAMPBELL, Sir Colin - I41112

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[1] The fact is well known that Oliver Cromwell took ten thousandth prisoners at the battle of Dunbar, 3 September 1650, and as many more of the battle of Worcester, just one year later. Those taken at Dunbar were marched down to Durham and New Castle by way of Berwick and entrusted to the care of Sir Arthur Heselrig. Many perished on this march, and some were shot because they could not or would not march. They had little to eat for eight days. Disease swept off 1,500 in the course of a few weeks. 150 were sent over to Boston, Mass., in the ship Unity, and since a score or so of them settled at what is now South Berwick, Maryland, that place was called the Parish of Unity.

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Many more of these Scotch prisoners were sent to Virginia, and more still were sent to West India islands. The prisoners taken at Worcester were marched up to London and there confined for a few months in the artillery grounds at Tuthill fields, perhaps half a mile west of Westminister Palace. Here they were allowed for daily rations a pound of bread and half a pound of cheese. Shelter seems to have been provided for the sick only. 273 of these prisoners were sent to Boston in the ship called the John and Sara and were consigned to Thomas Kemble, a merchant of Charlestown, Mass. This Thomas Kemble was part owner with Valentine Hill in the mills at Durham Falls and Lamprey River. He also owned lands in Maine and did an extensive business in lumber. He saw that the young Scotchmen at the Lynn Iron Works and later, in 1652, took some of them with him to work in the mills at South Berwick, then called Great Works. All the Scotchmen brought in the two ships above mentioned were sold to planters and others who needed workmen throughout New England.

The usual price paid was twenty pounds pay their passage money, and to learn some trade as apprentices, they were given their liberty. Many of them received grants of land in the towns where they had worked. The records of Dover, under date of 5 October 1652, have the following: "Given and granted unto Mr. Valentine Hill, his heiress Executors administrators or assigns four acres of land adjoining to Goodman Hudsons Lott for his Scots." Later, about 1663, we find another record as follows, "Layd out and Bounded to Henrey Brown and James Ore fower ackers which were given and granted unto Mr. Valentine Hills seven Scotes in the year 1652. Said land lyeth on the northern side of the land that was granted to Hudson and now in the hands of Edward Patterson." It bordered on the "freshet," that is, the mill-pond above the dam at Durham Falls, and was on the south side of the river, and on the New market road. It is probable that they worked by shifts in the mills, having three days in the week to work in their gardens. They were not allowed to marry till they got their liberty. Some of them never married. Some married daughters of their employers. Some married Irish maids who had been kidnapped and brought over as house servants and to swell the population of the colonies.


  1. Source: History of the Town of Durham, New Hampshire (Oyster River Plantation), by Everett S. Stackpole and Lucien Thompson, Published by vote of the Town, 1913; pgs. 75-83 from the Chapter "Exiles from Scotland. Transcribed by C. Parziale, Feb 2001 "EXILES FROM SCOTLAND"