Emperor Louis de Bonaire - I53370
Emperor Louis de Bonaire - Also known as "le Debonnaire." As a child, in 781, he was crowned King of Aquitaine. His father planned to divide the Empire among his three sons, but on account of the death of the other two, Louis became successor in the empire, his nephew Bernard, son of Pepi, be coming King of Italy. Louis was crowned Emperor by his father at Aachen in 813. Three years later he was crowned a second time by Pope Stephen IV at Reims. His tastes were ecclesiastical rather than military, and he earned the surname Pious through his liberality to the church and for his attempt to reform and purify monastic life. Soon after his coronation he arranged for a division of the empire among his three sons, but he later married a second time and included Charles, a son by that marriage, in a new arrangement. The remainder of his reign was marked by a series of revolts on the part of the elder sons. At times they fought among themselves, at times against their father, and on two occasions practically deposed him.
With the death of Pepin, the empire was divided among the other three, including Charles.  - Louis' friend Einhard wrote a biography of Charlemagne, giving us information that would have been lost otherwise. In 814, Louis, his father's last surviving legitimate son, succeeded his father as king of the Franks and emperor of the Romans. Louis tried to hold together the Empire of the West which his father had left, but he could not control his rebellious sons, and his reign was not met with success. Early in his reign, Louis began to allocate parts of the empire to the various members of his family, but was met with difficulties and disasters that stayed with him the remainder of his life. When a nephew (Bernard) revolted, Louis had him blinded, from which the man died. Louis sent his sisters and half sisters to nunneries and later put his three illegitimate half brothers into monasteries. In 817, he arranged for the succession after his death by dividing the empire among his three sons of his first wife, Irmengard.
Louis redivided his empire in 829 to give Charles a share, which provoked resentment among the elder sons. They revolted, and Louis was removed from the throne in 833, yet was restored the next year. The bitter struggle between his sons continued until Louis died on 20 Jun 840 at Petersaue, an island in the Rhine near Ingelheim. The Carolingian empire Louis inherited in peace was left in disarray following his death; the constant disruptions since 829 from his sons continued for decades after his death, and the discord and warning between his sons left France and Germany an easy prey. Louis actually had little external conflict to deal with; the internal conflict nearly destroyed him. Louis presumably was given the epithet the Pious because of his devoutness, his liberality to the church, his interest in ecclesiastical affairs, and the good education he had received. 
- Ref: Colonial and Revolutionary Lineages of America 973.D2ah
- Ref: Duckett, Alfred the Great, p. 7
- Ref: Encyclopedia Britannica Macropedia, 1989 ed. S.v. "France, The partitioning of the Carolingian Empire." Encyclopedia Britiannica Micropedia, 1989, S.v. "Louis I."