So shall it be with my father: he shall be
called a prince over his posterity, holding
the keys of the patriarchal priesthood over the kingdom of God on earth, even the Church
of the Latter Day Saints, and he shall sit in the general assembly of patriarchs, even in
council with the Ancient of Days when he shall sit and all the patriarchs with him and shall
enjoy his right and authority under the direction of the Ancient of Days.
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HOHENSTAUFEN, Emperor Fredrick II[1]

Male 1194 - 1250  (55 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name HOHENSTAUFEN, Fredrick 
    Prefix Emperor 
    Suffix II 
    Birth 26 Dec 1194  Iesi, Ancona, Marche, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    _TAG Reviewed on FS 
    Burial Dec 1250  Monreale, Palermo, Sicily, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Death 13 Dec 1250  Monreale, Palermo, Sicily, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I30651  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2021 

    Father GERMANY, Emperor Heinrich de Hohenstauffen VI ,   b. Nov 1165, Schwaben, Bavaria, Germany Find all individuals with events at this locationSchwaben, Bavaria, Germanyd. 28 Sep 1197, Messina, Sicily, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 31 years) 
    Mother SICILY, Costanza Alfonsez ,   b. 18 Jan 1174, Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain Find all individuals with events at this locationZaragoza, Aragon, Spaind. 23 Jun 1222, Catania, Sicily, Italia Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 48 years) 
    Family ID F17388  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 BRIENNE, Isabella Yolanda de ,   b. 1207, Brienne, Nièvre, Bourgogne, France Find all individuals with events at this locationBrienne, Nièvre, Bourgogne, Franced. 5 May 1228, Brienne, Nièvre, Bourgogne, France Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 21 years) 
    Marriage 9 Nov 1225  Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F16162  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart
    Last Modified 24 Jan 2022 

    Marriage 1228  Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    +1. SICILY, King Manfredo ,   b. 1232, Sicily, Italy Find all individuals with events at this locationSicily, Italyd. 26 Feb 1266, Benevento, Sicily Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 34 years)
    Family ID F17386  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart
    Last Modified 24 Jan 2022 

    Family 3 ENGLAND, Princess Isabell ,   b. 1214, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this locationWinchester, Hampshire, Englandd. 1 Dec 1241, Foggia, Apulia, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 27 years) 
    Marriage 20 Jul 1235  Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F17387  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart
    Last Modified 24 Jan 2022 

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  • Notes 
    • Holy Roman Empire Dalford Stover's Research. Ephraim Blood Line. Frederic II, son of Henry VI. and Constance, was born at Jesi in 1194. He had superior talents, and was master of the Greek, Italian, French and Arabic languages. He was married at Palermo in 1209 to Constance, young and childless widow of Emrich, King of Hungary, daughter of Alfonso II., and sister to Peter II., of Argon, Spain. He was crowned Emperor of Germany July 25, 1215, at Aix-la-Chapelle, then only 21. After the defeat of his rival, Otho, at Bovines, he was supported by the Ghibeline party in an attempt to unite Germany and Italy into one empire. The project was resisted by the Pope and the Guelphs in a long contest. In 1220 he removed his court to Naples, which belonged to him by inheritance, and in which he founded a university. In accordance with a vow extorted from him in his youth by the Pope he undertook a crusade against the Infidels in 1227, but turned back before he reached Palestine, for which he was excommunicated by Gregory IX. He renewed the enterprise in 1228, took Jerusalem and made peace with the Pope in 1230. He suppressed a rebellion raised by his son Henry, gained in 1237 a great victory over the Guelphs at Corleone, and waged war against Gregory IX. In 1245 Pope Innocent renewed the papal anathema and absolved his subjects from their allegiance. In the midst of these troubles Frederic died, in 1250. He was succeeded by his son, Conrad IV. Frederic was eminent for courage and other royal qualities, and was considered the greatest general and statesman of his age. Ref: The Stover History page 16- Having given a brief sketch of the Hohenstaufen family (the ascent from his brother, Conrad) to the end of the Imperial house of that name in 1268, it will be seen that several hundred years intervene between that period and the time of the pioneers of this work. In that period are included many generations of the family of which we have no account, and are therefore unable to give a complete line of descent. The missing links, and whether to the part of the family that settled in Baden, Bavaria or Switzerland, the pioneers of this work belong, we will leave for some future historian of the family to determine. Note: Philip was assassinated after a reign of ten years and was succeeded by this son Henry VI. Frederick studied under Pope Innocent III and was very scholarly and cultured. He was crowned in 1215. In 1220 he removed his court to Naples, where there are still to be seen many evidences of his reign. Among them are a marble statue of himself in the Palazzo Reale, and the University which he founded. He died in 1250 and was succeeded by his son Conrad IV. Reigned 1215-1250. Frederick II of Hohenstaufen by Patience Andrewes; Oxford University Press 1970: (Brigham Young University Library) Ancestors, Birth, and Childhood - During the thirteenth century in Europe there were two dominant powers, the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, and the history of the period is thus largely connected with their activities. In the time of Charlemagne and the German Ottonian Emperors Pope and Emperor generally worked together in harmony. In all spiritual matters the power of the papcy and the Church was very great throughout Christendom, and the papcy also exercised considerable temporal power as well. During Frederick II's youth he was the ward of Innocent III, one of the most powerful of all medieval Popes, who raised both the spiritual as well as the temporal power of the papcy to new heights. He had a compact area of land directly under his control around Rome which reduced small papal levies. The thirtenth century sees the apex and the decline of the power of the papacy, followed by the long exile from Rome at Avignon, when the Popes were but puppets of the French kings. The reasons for the conflict between Pope and Emperor in Frederick's lifetime (he died in 1250) were two-- First and most important was the fact that Frederick held lands to both the north and south of the Papal States, and the Popes feared they would be annihilated by imperial armies, marching on them from both directions. The second reason was that the old feud between the Guelf and Ghibelline factions still split Europe. The Pope was pro-Guelf and the family of the Hohenstaufen, Frederick's family, was Ghibelline. In 1211/12 there was much fighting between the two parties in Germany, still competing for power as they had done in the twelfth century. The Guelfs were descended from Guelf IV, Duke of Bavaria, who died in 1101, and the Ghibellines were descended from Frederick of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia, who died in 1105. Their rivalry came to a climax in the conflicts of Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, and the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa; and between Henry the Lion's son Otto IV and two Hohenstaufen--Frederick Barbarossa's younger son, Philip of Swabia, and Philip's nephew, Frederick II. Frederick was the son of Henry VI, and thus a grandson of Frederick Barbarossa, and his maternal grandfather was Roger II of Sicily, a Norman. Barbarossa astutely married his elder son Henry VI to the Sicilian heiress, Constance, before he was drowned in 1190 on his way to the Holy Land. This united the Empire in the north with the rich Kingdom of Sicily in the south, the Papal States being sandwiched between them. There was now a direct threat to the papacy and a fear that Italy might be united under the temporal power of the Emperor. Frederick II was perhaps the most famous and powerful Emperor in Europe between Charlemagne and Napoleon, but because all his legitimate descendants were killed a few years after his death he established no reigning dynasty and his empire was split up. His life was like a meteor's flight. Even his birth took place in an unusual manner. Constance, his mother, was forty and had so far had no children, and she was hurrying down to her husband Henry in Sicily when Frederick was born in the small town of Jesi, a well-fortified hilltop in the March of Ancona. A tent was erected in the market-place, still called after Frederick, and the town-matrons were allowed to watch the birth of this very important child on 26 December 1194. Henry left Constance and her baby son in Sicily and went to Germany, where by judicious use of Sicilian loot as bribes he had the boy elected king of the Romans, the title always held by the Emperor-elect. Henry died in 1197, leaving Constance to govern Sicily, and she drew up a will making three-year-old Frederick the ward of Pope Innocent III. When she died in 1198 the boy was taken at the Pope's wish to Sicily to be brought up as king of Sicily instead of going north to Germany. Sicily was the meeting-place, partly because of its geographical position, of east and west, full of Saracens, Normans, Arabs, Byzantines, Jews, and Greeks; consequently it included many different cultures and ways of life. Frederick lived alone and hardly cared-for in Castellamare fortress, running wild in the streets of Palermo, learning languages at any early age (he was soon master of six, and still had German to learn), and discussing anything he could with the very diverse people he met. Often he was fed by the people of the town, and all the time he was learning, and reading everything he could lay hands on in the way of books, especially history, mathematics, and natural science. Both Queen Constance and Innocent III wished to confine Frederick to the Sicilian kingdom, abandoning all claims of Empire. The Pope had to fight hard for ten years to keep his ward's kingdom for him. Constance had hated the Germans and did all she could to keep them out of her lands. One of the Germans exiled from Sicily by Queen Constance was Markward of Anweiler, Henry VI's interpreter, who sought to become Vice Regent. After the Queen died, Markward returned in 1201 and took possession of Palermo. Frederick's whereabouts were twice betrayed to him, and he actually tried to capture the boy's person. Frederick was furious, fought the Germans off, tore his clothes to rags, and scratched himself as the Lord's anointed and his person sacred, not to be touched by profane hands. Then at the age of fourteen Frederick suddenly emerges as a man, a fine horseman, skilled in arms, and mentally mature, though he remained intensely interested in everything going on in the polyglot city of Palermo. He was lonely and spent much time in the fine park which was full of birds and animals. Throughout his life he preferred the isolation of his southern hunting castles and went to one of them whenever he was able to lay aside the cares of Empire. When he was nearly fifteen Frederick was married to the widowed Queen of Hungary, Constance of Aragon, ten years older than he was and chosen for him by Pope Innocent III. The young man was of medium height, and sturdily built, with bluegreen eyes, a ruddy complexion, and he had inherited Barbarossa's red hair. In later life he became rather stout and bald and he was very short-sighted, which must have been trying for anyone so keen on hunting and especially hawking. Frederick was rather rough and uncouth in manner because of his strange upbringing, but his wife, Constance, soon made Palermo into a real cultural centre again and he rapidly acquired manners and learned to use his considerable personal charm at her court. Had he been taken north to be educated in a cloister, the course of European history for the next fifty years would have been very different. As it was, Germany was much too busy fighting about Frederick's uncle Philip of Swabia, and Otto IV, the Guelf claimant to the Empire, to worry about a small boy in far-away Sicily. During these years Sicily was much fought over, by Germans, Frenchmen, Saracens, Pisans, and Genoese, and the Pope had to take firm action several times to save the kingdom for the boy-king. He came of age at fourteen, and on his fifteenth birthday when Innocent handed over his guardianship, started to set his chaotic inheritance in order. The birth of Constance's only child did much to widen Frederick's horizon. At about the same time his first illegitimate son, Enzio, was born. Eleven such children are known to have had the Emperor as their father. According to the standards of the time this was not particularly offensive to either clergy or laymen but what really shocked them was his oriental attitude towards women. None of his three wives shared in the brilliant court life which grew up around their husband, but were kept apart in the eastern fashion in the harem, guarded by eunuchs. Reared in Sicily Frederick had been influenced by the example of the upper-class Moslems and the way they kept their wives in seclusion. He also kept a troupe of Saracen dancing girls, some of whom usually accompanied him on his frequent arduous journeys, and the papcy consistently brought this up in its complaints against him. Frederick's first brush with the papcy took place soon after he began to reorganize Sicily. It concerned the appointment of Sicilian bishops. The Pope claimed the right of choice, and even if a candidate had been chosen by the Sicilian chapter and confirmed by the King, he could not be elected if the Pope disagreed. The subject was to prove a bone of contention throughout the rest of Frederick's life. In 1211/12 there was much fighting between Guelfs and Ghibellines in Germany and elsewhere, including Italy. They were old enemies within the Empire and competed for power throughout the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The anti-Hohenstaufen Emperor, Otto IV, attached and took the Sicilian mainland provinces. The princes in Germany elected Frederick Emperor in Otto's absence, and in 1212, although he would have preferred to continue pacifying the Sicilian realm, he made Constance Regent, had his small son Henry crowned king, and started the long journey to Germany. Events had moved quickly at one moment he was likely to lose even his Kingdom of Sicily to the all-powerful Otto and the next moment he had been made Emperor-elect, and Otto was in full retreat. It seemed a miracle, even now it sounds like a fairy-tale and it was the start of the many legends woven round Frederick even in his lifetime. The Emperor-elect went first with a small retinue to Rome, where he was well received, and did homage to Innocent III for the Kingdom of Sicily what the papacy had been dreading all along, that Frederick should unite Sicily and the Empire round the Papal States, was now becoming fact. In spite of his promised new position as emperor-elect Frederick still had only a few supporters, among them Archbishop Berard of Palermo, who stayed close to him all his life and gave him the last rites on his death-bed. Moreover, he had but little money and a scant knowledge of German. After leaving Rome he wove his way north, escaping capture by Otto's adherents one night by flinging himself on to a barebacked horse and swimming a river. After Trent the journey became more difficult as Otto's men held the Brenner Pass and the other main roads north, so he went via the Engadine. In Germany the Pope's decree that Frederick should be assisted bore fruit and by the time he reached the city of Constance he had collected three hundred men. Otto, now excommunicated, was encamped on the opposite side of the lake, and had sent his servants in advance to Constance to prepare his dinner, but it was Frederick who rode up and demanded entrance, Berard reminding the Bishop of Otto's excommunicated status. Soon 'the boy from Aulia' was received into the city and when Otto came demanding entrance and his dinner he was three hours too late. After this Frederick's following grew rapidly, and the whole of the Upper Rhineland rejoiced at his coming. He found the German principalities in a worse state of chaos than his Sicilian kingdom. With no real army he nevertheless made a triumphal entry into Germany, charming people by his open-faced Nordic good looks and the red-gold curling hair. During the winter Frederick retired from public life to Hagenau in Alsace, where the hunting in the forests was excellent and where his grandfather Barbarossa had collected a fine library. Young though he was, legends were springing up about him and his luck, many of them emphasizing his southern glamour and generous personality. In December 1212 he appeared at Mainz and was crowned Emperor. From the eleventh century the Church had been the strongest institution in Germany, owning more than half the land. Most of the administrative work was done by clerics, and the powerful Rhineland bishops ranked as princes of the Empire. Frederick stayed eight years in Germany and his relations with the Church were excellent. His main purpose was to have his son Henry crowned king of the Romans, although he had sworn not to unite Sicily and the Empire when he did homage to Innocent III. The boy had already been crowned king of Sicily. Frederick's fervid imperialism, now fully roused, was to bring himself and his family to destruction. Otto IV was still troublesome, he did not die until 1218. Philip Augustus of France, an ally of Frederick's, defeated Otto and some English forces at the battle of Bouvinesin 1214, and sent Frederick the tattered banner and the Imperial Eagle. The Emperor collected his first sizeable army and then headed for the north-west of the Empire. By October he had crushed Otto's power there. In 1215 Innocent III convened the Fourth Lateran Council, the biggest ecclesiastical and lay assembly that had ever met together. There were 71 archbishops, the patriarchs of Jerusalem and Constantinople, over four hundred bishops, eight hundred abbots and envoys from Western kings, princes, and towns. Their chief importance in the political history of Europe was that they deposed Otto, thereby creating a precedent, for it implied that the papacy was greater than the Empire. The same year Frederick, now aged twenty-one, was crowned king of the Romans at Aachen (aix-la-Chapelle), and felt himself truly the Emperor as he was anointed sitting on Charlemagne's throne. Emotionally moved by the ceremony, the young Emperor, with a theatrical gesture, took the Cross and vowed to go on a crusade. This was one of the strangest impulses in his whole career, and it became a source of trouble for thirteen years to come. The Emperor was the lay leader of Christendom and was expected to head the Crusades, like his grandfather Frederick Barbarossa. The knightly orders all needed a crusade to help them to win back the Holy Places in Palestine. The Templar's Grand-Master, Hermann of Salza went to Sicily to see how the Regency Council was working and to bring back his wife Constance and young Henry, now aged six. During the eight years (1212-1220) that he stayed in Germany Frederick worked hard to unite Franks, Saxons, Swabians, and Bavarians. His court became ever more brilliant and he particularly appreciated the southern German Minnesanger, singers of lyric songs. The finist farmers in the Middle Ages were the Cistercian monks and Frederick seriously studied their methods, especially their irrigation methods, collecting ideas which he put into force later in his desiccated southern kingdom. He had elaborate ditch patterns laid out round his hunting castles, many of them in the flat plains of the province of Apulia. At San Lorenzo, near Foggia, the pattern of the ditches can still be seen; they attracted the water-fowl that he so loved to hunt with his hawks. Frederick also studied Cistercian building, and the influence of their plain but beautifully proportioned architecture can be seen in some of the castles he built. One of the most frequent papal complaints about him was that though he was always building, he built no churches. In 1216 Innocent III died and Honorius III, a pious administrator and financier, succeeded him. Four years later the young Prince Henry was elected king of the Romans and his father decided to leave the boy behind in Germany and return to his southern kingdom which he much preferred. He gave great privileges to the German Church and granted fiefs which broke the provinces into smaller principalities, and Germany was now finally united under one ruler until 1871. Eight-year-old Henry was left in the charge of bishops and ministers of state. At this point Frederick infact abandoned the boy, taking away his mother, who never saw her son again. It seems that Hohenstaufen sons matured quickly as he himself had done and were able to take responsibility at any early age. In the autumn of 1220 Frederick and Constance visited Rome with much pomp and a great court about them, so different from the poorly attended 'boy from Apulia.' He was welcomed everywhere except in the Guelf city of Milan, which refused him the Iron Crown of Lombardy, and indeed was to help to bring the Hohenstaufen power to a ignoble end. Frederick's coronation in St. Peter's as Holy Roman Emperor, wearing the imperial crown and the clock, took place in an atmosphere of unparalleled splendour. Much largesse was lavished on Rome's citizens who greatly admired his menagerie, for their tastes had not altered since the times of the Caesars. Crowned, anointed, and holding the sword to show he was the defender of the Holy See, with Constance by his side crowned Empress, Frederick had realized his immediate ambitions. During the High Mass which followed he laid aside his imperial insignia and dressed in priestly vestments and he assisted Pope Honorius with the service in the humble capacity of a sub-deacon. The Mass was celebrated and he received the kiss of peace from the Pope. He again took the Cross and promised to lead a crusade in the following August. As he journeyed south various castles and fiefs were restored to the Empire. The nobles were now dealing with a mature statesman of twenty-six, who rebuilt or erected two hundred castles, administered directly by the crown, symbols of Frederick's rise to power. At Capua Frederick held the first court in the Sicilian kingdom for eight years. It produced an ordinance of twenty laws which laid the foundations for the entire reorganization of the kingdom for the next thirty years. The Normans had always been good administrators and Frederick now used this ability, which he had inherited through his mother, to the full. Hitherto all administrative and clerical work had been done by trained churchmen, chiefly because they could read and write Latin, the language in which all documents were read and written, but Frederick now began to employ lay civil servants to govern his estates. They were officially appointed for a year and then had to render an account and if they had proved satisfactory were reappointed. Sicily was the first state in which such modern ideas were used. Frederick decreed that every act in use since the time of the last legitimate Norman king, William II, was suspended and all marriages, subdivisions of fiefs or inheritances could not now take place without the Emperor's personal approval. It meant a great deal of work for the imperial chancery and in order to have the trained men needed to fill these new posts the University of Naples was founded in 1224. It became a rival of the Guelf University of Bologna. Loans and grants were made to needy scholars, and cheap food and lodgings were available in Naples. Trade was largely nationalized, markets and fairs were centralized and reduced in numbers. Frederick had no navy, but by buying, hiring, or confiscating merchant ships he had by 1221 collected two squadrons which he dutifully sent to help the Crusaders in Egypt, and four years later he had built more ships until he commanded fifty transports and a hundred warships. Knights fully armed were able to ride off these ships, like modern tank-landing craft. There was to be no imperial fleet again until the time of the Emperor Charles V in the 16th century. The whole island of Sicily was overrun by Saracens living by raiding and other lawless acts which Frederick would not allow, so in 1222 he began to exterminate them. They had been partly conquered by the Normans, but a hard core remained in the central highlands. This developed into a real, expensive, though small-scale war, and the Pope agreed that Frederick should not go on crusade until the Saracens had been defeated. By 1223 Frederick had decided how he would solve the Saracen problem. He moved sixteen thousand of them to the Apulian Plain and settled them around the old Roman town of Lucera near Foggia. This scheme was a great success. The Saracens were excellent farmers and provided some of the emperor's finest troops, his personal bodyguard and light mounted bowmen. They bred their own Arab horses. When it was not on tour with him, Fredrick left his menagerie in their care. The Empress Constance had died in 1222 and that winter, when Frederick returned to the mainland, Hermann von Salza came to him with the suggestion that he should marry again, this time the twelve-year-old Yolanda of Brienne, hereditary Queen of Jerusalem. The Pope thought it might speed the reluctant Emporer on his crusade if he had lands to claim in the Holy Land. The title was all Yolanda had, but Frederick agreed to the match and vowed to go on crusade on St. John's Day, 1225, which gave him another two years to finish dealing with the Saracens, 25,000 of them. This he did bit by bit, but there were always some leaders who escaped and led fresh rebellion. In March 1225 Hermann advised another postponement of the Crusade, for there was no enthusiasm, and France and England were busy fighting each other, and in June, at a meeting in Foggia, he obtained another two years' delay. Frederick swore on his soul to lead a crusade in the summer of 1227, but in agreeing to the further delay the Pope laid down tough conditions. The Emperor had to find one thousand knights and three horses for each, and their retainers. As a guarantee Hermann of Salza was to hold about a quarter of a million sterling, an hundred thousand ounces of gold which was to be returned to Frederick on his arrival in the Holy Land. If he failed to appear the money would be used to organize another crusade. Frederick was now thirty-one, and thickening in spite of a diet which allowed him only one proper meal a day which he ate in the evening, and much strenuous exercise travelling or hunting. In November 1225 he married Yolanda of Jerusalem in Brindisi, but three years later she died giving birth to Frederick's second legitimate son, Conrad In 1226 the Emporer became embroiled in new trouble over the Papal States, which he regarded as imperial property, given to the papacy, which he could reclaim at will. There was also more trouble about the election of bishops in Sicily. Frederick convened a Diet at Cremona at Easter. The Lombard cities in north Italy had done much as they liked since 1183. They were afraid that Frederick would reorganize them under secular administration like the Sicilian kingdom, and they refused to let Frederick's son Henry and his German knights through the Brenner Pass unless the emperor agreed to humiliating conditions, which he refused. Henry was stuck at Trent while his father studied antique Ravenna, where he visited the mausoleum of Galla Placidia, the Roman princess who was captured by the Goths at the sack of Rome in 410. The Bishop of Hildesheim put the Lombard towns under an interdict, the University of Bologna was closed, also other schools and institutions, and all political rights were suspended. As Frederick had no army and Pope Honorius was on the Lombard side, this did not trouble them. The towns lay athwart the route between Sicily, the Papal States and the Empire. Frederick was escorted to Pisa, while Hermann rode to Rome to lay the blame on the Lombard cities. During this respite the Emperor made a special study of mathematics with Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa, one of the best mathematicians Europe had seen for centuries, who was largely responsible for introducing Arabic numerals to the West; those that we use today. Frederick sent Leonardo a set of difficult problems, which he solved. By now Frederick's court was attracting the most brilliant men of his day. His favourite subjects were mathematics and natural sciences, and these were freely discussed, for many of the scholars about him were not Christian. His chancery clerks were hard worked. They loaded their documents and registers on to pack-animals in the morning, rode all day with the imperial entourage, and having unpacked their books, worked far into the night preparing letters and other documents for the Emperor's seal. It is said that Frederick once had a clerk's right thumb cut off for spelling his name incorrectly. In July 1226 the Emperor began to return from this ill-fated expedition to the north, leaving the Pope to deal with the Guelf cities in Lombardy. At about the same time Hermann von Salza returned to Foggia to say that the papal and imperial bans had been lifted and that the Lombard cities were to provide four hundred knights for the Crusade. In the autumn of 1226 Hermann, that faithful envoy, went north to the Empire to recruit Crusaders, but found it hard work. All the old enthusiasm had gone. Many took the Cross with no intention of leaving home and then bought themselves off with an indulgence. Gradually the first wave of genuine religious feeling was replaced by desire for plunder, by petty jealousies, and the charms of the warm climate and slack life in Palestine. Eventually Hermann obtained recruits with judicious use of Sicilian gold, and a large army collected in the south Italian port of Brindisi. In March 1227 Honorius III died and Gregory IX, a near relation of Innocent III, was elected Pope, and he soon showed how determined he was. He wrote to Frederick warning him not to follow the dictates of his senses too much. The Church and many individuals thought it rather indecent of the Emperor to have a bath every day, including Sundays and Saints' days an effeminate habit he had learned from the east. As the hot summer waxed, a plague broke out in the crowded camp of the Crusaders at Brindisi. Many died and others dispersed as quickly as possible. Even Frederick caught it but managed to embark with the Landgrave of Thuringia on 9 September. The latter died on the voyage and the ship returned to Brindisi, Frederick sent Hermann von Salza and the new Patriarch of Jerusalem off to the Holy Land to act as his leaders. Many Crusaders were so dismayed that they turned back. The Emperor was really ill, but recoverd his health at the famous thermal baths at Pozzuoli, south of Naples. He built a hospital for the poor there. Gregory IX received two embassies to explain why the Emperor had put back to port, but he would accept no excuses. Perhaps it might have been different if Hermann had been there with his honeyed tongue. Gregory excommunicated Frederick, at once, though this was not made public until November. In October the Pope had launched an attack on Frederick from all quarters. He blamed him for all the misfortunes and conveniently forgot the quota of a mere four hundred knights promised by the Lombard towns. The Emperor replied with a series of letters to Christian kings and bishops and went on with his preparations for the Crusade. Gregory continued his attacks, but Rome was for the Empire, and he had to retire to Rieti. Before he finally sailed, Frederick sent another embassy to the Pope, but Gregory would not even say what penance he must do to be received back into the Church. At last, on 22 Jun 1178, Frederick and forty galleons set sail from Brindisi, nearly thirteen years after he had so impulsively taken the Cross. In April the Empress Yolanda had died and Frederick lost his position as King of Jerusalem and became instead merely the guardian of her infant son, now King Conrad, but this did not check his ambition to be crowned king in Jerusalem. The Sultan of Egypt, al-Kamil, had sent an embassy to the imperial court in 1226. Frederick replied in 1227, sending Berad the Archbishop of Palermo and Count Thomas of Acerra to Cairo with letters and magnificent presents for the Sultan, which included Frederick's own white charger with a splendid golden jewelled saddle, other beautiful horses, and falcons, besides rich robes and other costly gifts. The Emperor and al-Kamil understood each other well, and each knew what would appeal to the other. No Western ruler was so much at home in an Arab milieu, for Frederick had Moslems in his court and also many Saracens serving him, especially as falconers, and he had spoken Arabic since his strange childhood in Palermo. No one but Federick would have even considered going on Crusade while excommunicated and without the papal blessing. He had only a moderately large army, light Saracen mounted bowmen from Lucera, fifteen hundred knights, and ten thousand infantry; nothing like the hundred thousand men his grandfather Barbarossa is said to have commanded. Throughout his life Frederick's armies were always too small to realize his ambitions. He had to win back the Holy Places for Christendom by diplomacy, not fighting, and his understanding of the Eastern way of thinking made this just possible if all went smoothly. The Frankish barons of the kingdoms established in the Middle East by earlier Crusaders did not like the Emperor, for although excommunicated he was rather high-handed with them, and so cock-sure he would win back the Holy Places, which they had been unable to do since the ill-fated battle of Hattim (1187). At first the Templars and Hospitallers would have nothing to do with him; only the Teutonic knights under Hermann von Salza were loyal. Have called at Cyprus on the way Frederick arrived triumphantly at Acre, and here everybody, Hospitallers and Templars included, joined in the welcome, for now surely the Pope's ban would be lifted. About eleven thousand troops were encamped around Acre. Hermann had been there since 1227 and knew how the political situation was developing. Frederick sent off an embassy to the Sultan al-Kamil to say that he did not wish to fight, but wanted the Christian Holy Places, which were the rightful possessions of his young son Conrad. The Emperor and al-Kamil never met each other, which was a pity as they would have enjoyed so many of the same mental pleasures together. Rich gifts passed between them--Frederick was given jewels, ten camels, an elephant, beautiful Arab mares, bears, and monkeys--but no treaty was forthcoming. By now even the Moslems knew of the excommunication for two friars arrived from Rome to say that no one was to acknowledge the Emperor, and this of course included the Patriarch of Jerusalem and the knightly orders. The Pope also sent envoys to the Genoese, telling them not to help the Emperor, in fact did all he could to wreck the Crusade. The army was bewildered and the orders for the day were issued in the name of Jesus Christ. Frederick's difficulties increased steadily. He took his army to Jaffa and started to fortify the town, but this caused trouble with al-Kamil who broke off negotiations altogether. Then came news that the Pope was attacking imperial territory in the south of Italy and generally stirring up trouble. To add to the Crusaders' discomfort most of the food-ships bringing fresh supplies were lost in a great storm and they were almost starving. In early February 1229, amid these frightful difficulties, Frederick sent an embassy to al-Kamil, who was having troubles of his own, in trying to capture Damascus. On 1l February the Emperor's two ambassadors, Thomas of Acena and Balain of Sidon, came back with astounding treaty proposals. There was to be a ten year truce; the Christians were to receive Jerusalem, except the two most holy Moslem places, the Dome of the Rock and the Mosque of el-Aqsa, where the Arabs were to have right of access and religious freedom. The Christians were to have Nazareth and Bethlehem and the country around them, and a corridor to the sea at Jaffa, including the two great Crusader castles of Montfort and Tyron. These proposals made al-Kamil very unpopular with the Arab world; his nephew refused to ratify them, the Caliph of Baghdad protested, and the religious leaders were deeply annoyed. It meant peace for ten years for al-Kamil to carry on his own intrigues. The Christian world was also far from satisfied. The barons of Palestine had taken no part in the negotiations. The actual document was witnessed by von Salza and two English archbishops, Peter of Winchester and William of Exeter. The Emperor had not only won the Holy Places without bloodshed but also without having to cede anything in return, in spite of all the Pope's intrigues against him. The ordinary pilgrim could now visit both Christian and Moslem Holy Places. Out of respect for the Christian leader, the Muezzin, the Moslem call to prayer, had been forbidden in Jerusalem, but Frederick was used to it from his Palermo days, so it began again, calling the faithful to prayer. The Arabs of the east, except for a few cultured men like al-Kamil, rather despised Frederick. They did not understand a Christian who seemed to respect the religion of Islam as well as Christianity, and their chronicles reported that short, fat, and myopic as he was he would not fetch many bezants in the slave market. A Christian who disparaged his own faith and paid artless compliments to Islam they did not trust. In March 1229 the Qadi of Nablus gave the Emperor the keys of the city, and with Hermann and the Teutonic knights, Sicilian bishops, the two English bishops, and a crowd of German he made a state entry into Jerusalem. The streets were deserted, as the eastern Christians refused to greet Frederick and the Arabs had either fled or were not interested and stayed indoors. Gerold, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, would not accompany the Emperor and vowed to put the Holy City under an interdict if he entered it. The next Sunday Frederick went to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to be crowned King of Jerusalem, though he was in fact only Regent for Conrad. There were no priests in the Church except those he had brought with him, but it was full of soldiers and , the white surcoats of von Salza's Teutonic knights making light patches in the gloom. The crown was on the altar and the Emperor crowned himself. Then he actually spoke in Latin in his own defence, tracing the stormy history of the Crusade and not blaming Pope Gregory too much. Hermann von Salza translated the harangue into French and German. Frederick characteristically then went to visit the Moslem Holy Places, which no doubt interested him as much as the Christian shrines. The next day the Archbishop of Caesarea put Jerusalem under an interdict. Frederick lost his temper and departed for Acre. Then came news that Frederick's father-in-law, John of Brienne, had successfully invaded the Kingdom of Sicily. The Emperor had accomplished all that he had intended to achieve by his Crusade so he decided to embark secretly for Sicily on 1 May. Somehow the news leaked out and on his way to the harbour he was pelted with filth, offal, and pigs' guts. He reached Brindisi on 10 June 1239. He found turmoil awaiting him. The Pope was plotting everywhere against him, even to the point of stating he was dead, so he had to show himself to the populace to prove this was a lie. Within about four months, however, Frederick managed, with the help of some Teutonic knights who had returned with him, to drive the papal troops, and those commanded by John of Brienne, from his kingdom. But it was almost another two years before, partly owing to the diplomacy of Hermann von Salza, the sentence of excommunication was lifted. In July 1230 a monk called Gualo brought the Pope's terms, which were very harsh. The Princes of the Empire and the College of Cardinals pleaded for the Emperor and the Princes even guaranteed his good faith. On 28 August the ban was lifted. With characteristic enthusiasm Frederick immediately set off with a few retainers to Anagni where the Pope was living--a breeding ground of powerful popes, Alexander III, Innocent III, and Gregory IX. But now all was peace and the Emperor dined with Gregory and afterwards he and von Salza had a highly satisfactory talk with him. The Pope now ratified the treaty between Frederick and al-Kamil, and the interdict was lifted from the Holy Places. The Templars were warned not to cause trouble, since the two Moslem sacred places lay in the Temple quarter. But the Pope did not recognize Frederick as King of Jerusalem until August 1231. (In Alice Turley's file are pages 24 to 55 and someday they need to be included here.) ...Frederic the Redbeard having met with death in the Holy Land in one of the crusades, his oldest son followed him, as Henry the 6th. He was a poet and one of the best of his line, but the Popes would not tolarate the worldly crown alongside the tiara and in fighting the popes he lost both life and kingdom on the 15th day of December, 1250, at Ferentinnon, Italy, a broken-hearted, disappointed man. Another son of Frederick died in 1254 as Konrad the 4th and the last son King Manfred lost in the year of 1266 also his life in the battle of Benevent against the Pope and the Duke of Anjon and thus there was but one left, Konrad in a grandson of Frederic, who tore himself away from his mother's arms and with a small army crossed the Alps into Italy, to assert his rights, but was beaten by the Duke of Anjon and through the treachery of one Frankispany delivered into the hands of the Duke who had him beheaded at Naples on the 29th day of October and thus closed forever, the wonderful career of the house of Hohenstaufen. With the extinction of the house, the burg fell back to the German Empire and often changed owners and was finally sold in 1347 by Karl the 4th to Eberhard, the Duke of Wuerttenburg, where it has remained ever since, and we find that the place was in command of George Stauffer (note two "f"s) in the name, when the great peasant war broke out in Suabia in 1525, and during his temporary absence, the peasants marched against the place and after short and half-hearted resistance captured the old Stauferburg and utterly destroyed it, leaving nothing but the bare walls; the stones were carted away during the following centuries and used for building purposes, the most going toward the building of the ducal palace in Goeppingen and the balance to whomever wanted them; one great tower stood until 1705 when it was also taken down because they were afraid it would fall on somebody. The German people would give thousands now, if it was standing today. (Translated from German to English.) From Fed Holn 2030 Green Street Harrisburg, PA. ---------------------------------------- AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS DESCENDED FROM MAGNA CHARTA BARONS and/or CRUSADERS The below listed immigrant ancestors have to date been found to have lead successfully to application for membership to BOMC and/or Barons Crusaders William d'Aubeney (Aubigny) Roger le Bigod Hugh le Bigod Henry de Bohun Richard de Clare Gilbert de Clare John Fitz Robert Robert Fitz Walter William de Huntingfield John de Lacy William de Lanvalay William Malet William de Mowbray Saher de Quincy Robert de Roos Geoffrey de Say Robert de Vere Hugh Magnus, Duke of France William VII, Count of Poitou Edward I, King of England Fredrick III, Barborossa Stephen of Bois William de Mohun Saher de Quincy Gilbert de Clare William de Longspee Louis VII, King of France Geoffrey of Bologne *New Ancestors may be added and/or become unacceptable as new evidence is uncovered. Abbott, Anne (Mauleverer), of Nottingham Township, Burlington Co., NJ Abell, Robert, of Weymouth & Rehoboth, MA Abney, Dannett, of King William & Spotsylvania Cos., VA Allin, Katherine (Deighton), of Roxbury and Dedham, MA Alsop, Elizabeth Alsop, Timothy, of New Haven, CT Alsop, George, of Milford, CT Alston, John, of Berkeley Co., SC Argall, Sir Samuel, deputy Governor of VA Asfordby, William, of Kingston & Marbletown, NY Aston, Walter, of the West Indies Aubrey, Barbara Baldwin, Elizabeth (Alsop), of Milford, CT Ball, Elizabeth (Harleston), of St. James Parish, Berkeley Co., & Charleston, SC Barclay, John, Governor of New Jersey Barclay, Robert, Governor of East Jersey Barham, Charles, of Surry Co., VA Barnes, Charles, of Long Island, NY Batt, Anne (Baynton), of Boston, MA Batt, Christopher, of Boston, MA Batte, Henry, of Charles City Co., VA Batte, Thomas, of Charles City & Henrico Cos., VA Batte, William, of Charles City Co., VA Baynard, John, Gent., of Talbot Co., MD Baynton, Anne Beckwith, Sir Marmaduke, of Richmond Co., VA Berkeley, Sir William, Governor of VA Bernard, Anna (Cordray), of York Co., VA Bernard, Richard, of York Co., VA Bernard, William, of Isle of Wight Co., VA Bevan, Barbara (Aubrey), of PA Bevan, John, of PA Beville, Essex, of Henrico Co., VA Bickley, Joseph, of King William Co., VA Bladen, William, of St. Mary's & Anne Arundel Cos., MD Blakiston, George, of St. Mary's Co., MD Blakiston, Nehemiah, of St. Mary's Co., MD Blunston, Hannah (Levis), of Darby, Chester Co., PA Bolles, Joseph, of Winter Harbor & Wells, ME Booth, Thomas, of Gloucester Co., VA Bosvile, Elizabeth Bourchier, Mary Bradshaw, Sarah (Levis), of Darby, Chester Co., PA Brent, [Capt.] George, of Stafford Co., VA Brent, [Col.] Giles, of Kent Island, MD, & Stafford Co., VA Brent, Robert, of Stafford Co., VA Bressey, Thomas, of New Haven, CT Brooke, Mary (Wolseley), of Calvert Co., MD Browne, Nathaniel, of Hartford & Middletown, CT, & Springfield, MA Bruen, Obadiah, of Marshfield & Gloucester, MA, & New London, CT Bulkeley, Elizabeth Bulkeley, Grace (Chetwode), of Concord, MA Bulkeley, Martha Bulkeley, Rev. Peter, of Concord, MA Bull, Stephen, of SC Burnet, William, Governor of NY Burnham, Alice (Eltonhead), of York, Lancaster, & Middlesex Cos., VA Burrough, Nathaniel, of Calvert Co., MD, & Roxbury, MA Butler, Elizabeth Butler, John, of Kent Island, MD Calthorpe, Col. Christopher, of York Co., VA & NC Calvert, Charles, Governor of MD Calvert, Jane (Lowe) (Sewall), of St. Mary's Co., MD Calvert, Leonard, Governor of MD Campbell, Lord William, Governor of SC Carleton, Edward, of Rowley, MA Carleton, Ellen (Newton), of Rowley, MA Carroll, Dr. Charles, of MD Carter, Eleanor (Eltonhead), of Lancaster Co., VA Carter, Sarah (Ludlow), of Lancaster Co., VA Cartlidge, Mary (Need), of Darby, Chester Co., PA Chauncy, [Rev] Charles, of Scituate and Plymouth, MA Cheseldine, Kenelm, of St. Mary's Co., MD Chetwode, Gracy Claiborne, Elizabeth (Butler), of the Isle of Kent, Chespeake Bay, & New Kent, VA Clarke, Jeremy, of Newport, RI Clarkson, Matthew, of New York City, NY Claypoole, James, of Philadelphia, PA Claypoole, Norton, of Lewes, DE Clopton, William, of York & New Kent Cos., VA Codd, St. Leger, of Lancaster & Northumberland Cos., VA, & Cecil Co., MD Conway, Martha (Eltonhead), of Lancaster Co., VA Cooke, Elizabeth (Haynes), of Cambridge, MA Corbin, Alice (Eltonhead), of Middlesex Co., VA Corbin, Henry, of Middlesex Co., VA Cordray, Anna Coytemore, Elizabeth Crowne, Agnes (Mackworth), of Boston, MA Cudworth, James of Scituate, MA Culpeper, Katherine (St. Leger), of VA Culpeper, Thomas, of VA Culpeper, John, of VA Dade, Francis, of Warwick Co., VA Dale, Diana (Skipwith), of Lancaster Co., VA Davie, Humphrey, of Boston, MA, & Hartford, CT Deighton, Frances Deighton, Jane (see Lugg) Deighton, Jane (see Negus) Deighton, Katherine Derehaugh, Anne Digges, Edward, of York Co., VA Dudley, Katherine (Deighton), of Roxbury & Dedham, MA Dudley, Thomas, Governor of MA Dunlop, Archibald, of CT Eddowes, Ralph, of PA Eddowes, Sarah (Kenrick), of Philadelphia Co., PA Edwards, Agnes, of Cambridge, MA and Hartford, CT Elkington, George, of Burlington Co., NJ Ellis, Rowland, of Bryn Mawr & Gwynedd, PA Eltonhead, Agatha Eltonhead, Alice Eltonhead, Eleanor Eltonhead, Jane Eltonhead, Martha Farrar, William, of Henrico Co., VA Farwell, Olive (Welby), of Concord & Chelmsford, MA Fenwick, Jane (Eltonhead), of St. Mary's Co., MD Fenwick, John, of Salem, NJ Filmer, Henry, of James City & Warwick Cos., VA Fisher, John, of Northampton Co., VA Fitz Randolph, Edward, of Scituate and Barnstable, MA and Piscataway, NJ Fleete, Henry, of Lancaster Co., VA Foliot, Edward, of York Co., VA Fowke, [Col.] Gerard, of Westmoreland Co., VA and Charles Co., MD Gerard, Thomas, of St. Mary's Co., MD, & Westmoreland Co., VA Gill, Mary (Mainwaring), said to be of MD Goddard, William, of Watertown, MA Gordon, Thomas, of NJ Gorsuch, Anne (Lovelace), of VA Gurdon, Muriel Gye, Mary Hackburne, Katherine (Deighton), of Roxbury & Dedham, MA Hamby, Katherine Harlakenden, Elizabeth (Bosvile), of Cambridge, MA Harlakenden, Mabel Harlakenden, Roger, of Cambridge, MA Harleston, Elizabeth Harleston, John, of St. James Parish, Berkeley Co., SC Harris, Agnes Haugh, Elizabeth (Bulkeley), of Cambridge & Boston, MA Hawes, Edmund, of Duxbury & Yarmouth, MA Haynes, Elizabeth Haynes, Mabel, of Hartford, CT Henry, John, of VA Horsmanden, Warham, of Charles City Co., VA Houston, Sir Patrick, 5th Baronet, of GA Hoyle, Edward of VA Humphrey, Anne Humphrey, Daniel, of Haverford, Delaware Co., PA Humphrey, John of PA Hunter, Robert, Governor of NY & NJ Hutchinson, Anne (Marbury), of Boston, MA, RI, & NY Hutchinson, Katherine (Hamby), of Boston, MA Iremonger, Corderoy, of Northumberland Co., VA Iremonger, Francis, of Gloucester Co., VA Iremonger, Martha Iremonger, William, of Lancaster Co., VA Isham, Henry, of Henrico Co., VA James, Rev. Thomas, Jr., of Southampton, NY Jennings, Edmund, of York Co., VA Jones, Martha, of Northumberland Co., VA Keayne, Anne, of Boston, MA Keith, Sir William, Governor of PA & DE Kempe, Edmund, of VA Kempe, Edward, of VA Kempe, Matthew, of Lancaster & Gloucester Cos., VA Kempe, Richard, Esq., of James City Co., VA Kenrick, Sarah Launce, Mary Levis, Hannah Levis, Samuel, of Chester Co., PA Levis, Sarah Lewis, Elizabeth (Marshall), of ME Ligon, Thomas, of Henrico Co., VA Littleton, Nathaniel, Esq., of Northampton Co., VA Lloyd, Thomas, of Philadelphia, PA Logan, James, of PA Lovelace, Anne Lowe, Henry, of St. Mary's Co., MD Lowe, Jane Lowe, Nicholas, of Talbot Co., MD Lowe, Vincent, of Talbot Co., MD Lowell, Percival, of Newbury, MA Ludlow, Gabriel, of New York City, NY Ludlow, Roger, of Dorchester, MA; Windsor & Fairfield, CT Ludlow, Sarah Lugg, Jane, of Boston, MA Lunsford, Thomas, of Lancaster Co., VA Lynde, Simon, of Boston, MA Mackworth, Agnes Mainwaring, Mary Mallory, Roger, of New Kent & King & Queen Cos., VA Mallory, Thomas, of Charles City Co., VA Mansfield, Elizabeth Mansfield, John, of Charlestown, MA Manwaring, Oliver, of New London, CT Marbury, Anne Marbury, Katherine Marbury, Elizabeth Mauleverer, Anne Maverick, Mary (Gye), of Dorchester, MA Mellowes, Martha (Bulkeley), of Charlestown, MA Miles, Anne (Humphrey), of Swansea, MA More, Richard, of Plymouth & Salem, MA Need, Joseph, of Darby, Chester Co., PA Need, Mary Negus, Jane (Deighton) (Lugg), of Boston, MA Nelson, John, of Boston, MA Nelson, Margaret Nelson, Philip, of Rowley, MA Nelson, Thomas, of Rowley, MA Newton, Ellen Norwood, Charles, of VA Norwood,[Col.] Henry, of VA Orr, John, of VA Otis, Rose, of Dover, NH Owen, Joshua, of Burlington Co., NJ Owen, Rebecca (Owen), of Merion, Philadelphia Co., PA Owsley, Thomas, of Stafford Co., VA Oxenbridge, John, of Boston, MA Palgrave, Dr. Richard, of Charlestown, MA Palmes, Anne (Humphrey), of Swansea, MA Parker, George, of VA Parker, Richard, of Charles City & Henrico Cos., VA Pelham, Elizabeth (Bosvile), of Cambridge, MA Pelham, Herbert, of Cambridge, MA Pelham, Jemima (Waldegrave), of Cambridge, MA Peyton, Robert, of Gloucester Co., VA Pole (or Poole), Elizabeth, of Taunton, MA Pole (or Poole), William, of Dorchester & Taunton, MA Popham, George, of Maine Pynchon, Amy (Wyllys), of Springfield, MA Randolph, Henry, of Henrico Co., VA Randolph, William, of Henrico Co., VA Raynsford, Edward, of Boston, MA Reade, George, of James City & York Cos., VA Rodney, Capt. John, Gent., of St. Kitts & Philadelphia, PA Rodney, William, of Kent Co., DE Rudyard, Thomas, deputy Governor of East Jersey Saint John, Elizabeth Saint Leger, Katherine Saltonstall, Muriel (Gurdon), of Ipswich, MA Saltonstall, Richard, of Watertown & Ipswich, MA Savage, Anthony, of VA Scott, Katherine (Marbury), of Massachusetts & RI Seton, William, of NY Sewall, Jane (Lowe) of St. Mary's Co., MD Sherman, Mary (Launce), of Watertown, MA Skepper, Rev. William, of Boston, MA Skipwith, Diana Skipwith, Sir Grey, Knt., 3rd Baronet, of VA Smith, Lawrence, of VA Smith, Mary Johanna (Somerset), of Calvert Co., MD Somerset, Mary Johanna Spencer, Agnes, of Cambridge, MA and Hartford, CT Spotswood, Alexander, Governor of VA Stockman, John, of Salisbury, MA Stoughton, Rose Stratton, Anne (Derehaugh), of Salem, MA Taylor, James, Gent., of Boston & Lynn, MA Teackle, Margaret (Nelson), of Accomack Co., VA Throckmorton, John, of Salem, MA, Providence & Warwick, RI, & NJ Torrey, [Rev.] Samuel, of Hull and Weymouth, MA Torrey, William, of Weymouth, MA Towneley, Lawrence of VA Towneley, Mary Tyndall, Margaret Tyng, Elizabeth (Coytemore), of Boston, MA Veatch, James, of MD Waldegrave, Jemima Warner, Mary, of York and Gloucester Cos., VA Washington, John, of Westmoreland Co., VA Washington, Lawrence, of Rappahannock Co., VA Welby, Olive Wentworth, [Elder] William, of Dover, NH West, Francis, Governor of VA West, John, of York Co., VA West, Thomas, Knt., 3rd Lord De la Warre, Governor of VA Whiting, Elizabeth (St. John), of Lynn, MA Whitaker, Rev. Alexander, of VA Whitaker, Jabez, of Henrico Co., VA Whittaker, Mary (Bourchier), of Henrico Co., VA Whittingham, Elizabeth (Bulkeley), of Cambridge & Boston, MA Williams, Frances (Deighton), of Taunton, MA Willis, Amy Wilson, Elizabeth (Mansfield), of Boston, MA Wingfield, Thomas, of New Kent Co., VA Winthrop, Margaret, of Boston, MA Wolsey, Mary Worden, Peter, of MA Wormeley, Agatha (Eltonhead), of Middlesex Co., VA Wyatt, Sir Francis, Governor of VA Wyatt, Rev. Hawte, of Jamestown, VA Wyche, Henry, of Surry Co., VA Yale, Thomas, Gent., of New Haven, CT Yate, George, of Anne Arundel Co., MD GIVEN NAMES: Also shown as Frederich

  • Sources 
    1. [S72] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ancestral File (TM), (June 1998 (c), data as of 5 JAN 1998).