So shall it be with my father: he shall be
called a prince over his posterity, holding
the keys of the patriarchal priesthood over the kingdom of God on earth, even the Church
of the Latter Day Saints, and he shall sit in the general assembly of patriarchs, even in
council with the Ancient of Days when he shall sit and all the patriarchs with him and shall
enjoy his right and authority under the direction of the Ancient of Days.
First Name:  Last Name: 
[Advanced Search]  [Surnames]
SMITH, Joseph Jr.

SMITH, Joseph Jr.[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16]

Male 1805 - 1844  (38 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

 Set As Default Person    

Personal Information    |    Media    |    Notes    |    Sources    |    All    |    PDF

  • Name SMITH, Joseph 
    Suffix Jr. 
    Birth 23 Dec 1805  Sharon, Windsor, Vermont, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    Gender Male 
    _TAG Locked By FS 
    _TAG Reviewed on FS 
    Death 27 Jun 1844  Carthage, Hancock, Illinois, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    Burial 29 Jun 1844  Nauvoo, Hancock, Illinois, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I26  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2021 

    Father SMITH, Joseph Sr. ,   b. 12 Jul 1771, Topsfield, Essex, Massachusetts, United States Find all individuals with events at this locationTopsfield, Essex, Massachusetts, United Statesd. 14 Sep 1840, Nauvoo, Hancock, Illinois, United States Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 69 years) 
    Mother MACK, Lucy   Additional Information on MACK, Lucy - I35,   b. 8 Jul 1775, Gilsum, Cheshire, New Hampshire, United States Find all individuals with events at this locationGilsum, Cheshire, New Hampshire, United Statesd. 8 May 1856, Nauvoo, Hancock, Illinois, United States Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 80 years) 
    Marriage 24 Jan 1796  Tunbridge, Orange, Vermont, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F29  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family HALE, Emma ,   b. 10 Jul 1804, Harmony, Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, United States Find all individuals with events at this locationHarmony, Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, United Statesd. 30 Apr 1879, Nauvoo, Hancock, Illinois, United States Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 74 years) 
    Marriage 18 Jan 1827  Bainbridge, Chenango, New York Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • ~SEALING_SPOUSE: Also shown as SealSp 25 Aug 1897, SLAKE. Ordinance records for Emma's sealing to Joseph was lost. On 26 January 1978 action was taken which ratified the previous ordinance work for the record. (Letter from Henry E Christiansen, to Gracia Denning, explained the procedure which settle the difficulty of lack of records.) Any ordinances not done up to that date were completed for the entire family group and all work was completed on 26 January 1978. A year later Andrew F. Ehat discovered the documentation for the original ordinance written in code in Heber C. Kimball's journal. This is now published in The Diary of Heber C. Kimball, on the Potter's wheel. At the time this procedure was done the infant son who did not survive his birth was listed as having been born 26 December 1842. This has since been proven incorrect as the record in Emma's own hand writing dates his birth/death as 6 February 1842, as is reflected in the family group herein.~SEALING_SPOUSE: Also shown as SealSp 25 Aug 1897, SLAKE. ~SEALING_SPOUSE: Also shown as SealSp 25 Aug 1897, SLAKE.
    Children 9 sons and 2 daughters 
    Family ID F15  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart
    Last Modified 24 Jan 2022 

  • Photos
    Joseph jr boy.jpg
    joseph live.jpg
    joseph nauvoo legion uniform.jpg
    Joseph teaching.jpg
    joseph smith.jpg

  • Notes 
    • Published- BIOGRAPHY: Joseph Smith is a Grandson of Nial of the Nine Hostages. (See more below) GOD'S COVENANT RACE by James H. Anderson - "Truth is ageless." ( A selection of addresses by Elder James H. Anderson uniting this subject with the divine testimony of the Prophet Joseph Smith "Herein is My Father glorified, that ye hear much fruit; so shall ye be My disciples. As the Father hath loved Me so have I loved you: Continue ye in My love. If ye keep My commandments, ye shall abide in My love; even as I have kept My Father's commandments, and abide in His love. These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you and that your joy might be full." Jesus of Nazareth (John 15:8-11). Printed in the U.S.A. by Deseret News Press, Salt Lake City, Utah 1944 Publisher's Preface to Third Editon "... It is the sincere hope of the publisher that this volume may continue to assist members of our Church to better realize their ancient glories past, with its great heritage and destiny. If our L.D.S. people can see the actual, racial and historical relationship between Bible times and themselves it will measurably increase their faith in every phase of the restored gospel. With the exception of our Lord Jesus Christ no man ever laid claim to a greater manifestation of the divine power than did Joseph Smith. If his claims are correct it is only logical to expect that a century after his time the expanding volume of true history would begin t sustain and vindicate his work. Over one hundred years ago, September 15th, 1842, he recorded this prophecy," 'surely facts are stubborn things." It will be as it ever has been the world will prove Joseph Smith a true prophet by circumstantial evidence as they did Moses ..."That is exactly what is happening, and a growing, vital faith in our claims to priesthood leadership, temple work, etc., can be obtained by a careful study of our marvelous racial and historical background. Earl W. Harmer (Publisher) 945 South 7th East, Salt Lake City 4, Utah Chapter 1 - GOD'S COVENANT RACE FROM PATRIARCHAL TIMES TO THE PRESENT A World Dilemma--Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright--Tracings of Israel History--Special Blessings to Joseph--Elijah in Ancient Israel--Ten Tribes called in Isaac's Name--Birthright Holder in Latter Days--Elijah Comes on His Saving Mission pg 1-11 Chapter 2 - God's Pledge to Israel of World Blessing--The Covenant Race--Promise to Abraham and Sarah and Their Progeny--Pledge Culminated in Israel--Racial History of Chosen Family--Early Christianity--Latter Day Prophet--Coming of Elijah and Results pg 12-39 Chapter 3 - Uniting the House of Jacob--Prophecies of Judgment and Blessing--Mount of Olives Lesson--Two Kingdom's of Jacob's Race--"Seven Times"--Isaac's Sons--Zionism's Mistake--The Divine Purpose and Israel Kingdom--Modern Dilemma--God the Eternal Refuge pg 40-65 Chapter 4 - From Egypt 1486 B.C. to America Today--The Firey Pillar--Liberty and Loyalty--Racial Purity--Seven Times Punishment--Colapse of Law Danger--Diving Israel--May Civilization--Ten Tribed Nation--Racial Identy--The Birthright Heritage--Racial Destiny pg 66-85 Chapter 5 - Queries Concerning Ten-Tribed Israel--Myths regarding the Ten Tribes--The Apocrypla and History--Mission of Elijah and World Crisis--Pointed Questions for Serious Contemplation--"The Beginning of My Pedigree"--Genealogical chart from Adam to Ephraim pg 86-129 Chapter 6 - Birthright Leadership in Divine Priesthood--Preservation of Israel's House of Joseph from Absorption by Other Races a Miracle of History--Joseph's Birthright Anciently and Now-- Latter-day Developments pg 130--160 Chapter 7 - Book of Mormon Promises and Prophecies--Sacred Record--Miracle of Translation--Tests for Truth--Harmony with the Bible--Humn for Judah--Converting Jews to Christ--The American Indians--Future of the American People pg 161-187 Chapter 8 - America in Scripture History over 4000 Yeats--America's History commences in Genesis 11:4-9--Scattering of People on "the face of all the land" includes America--Evidence of Archeology--Longfellow's "Hiawatha"--Book of Mormon Questions--New Jerusalem to be Built on this Land the Apex of Americ's History pg 162-188 Chapter 9 - The Davidic Covenant - King David Judah's Sceptre Line--Statement of Joseph Smith--Tracing the Genealogy of Britain's Royal House--Bible Story of King's Daughters pg 189-203 Chapter 10 - The Misionary St. Paul - Saul the Persecutor--Martyrdom of Stephen--Saul's Miraculous Conversion--Jewish Enmity to Paul--Visit of Paul to The Apostle Peter--His Divine Commission and the Testimony of Jesus--Marvelous Missionary Record--Paul's Travels in Europe pg 204-223 ------------------------------------------ "The scope of this collection of addreses is (1) That God has a Plan of the Ages, embraced in the Gospel; (2) That He chose as His chief human agents a selected line of descendants of Abraham for the blessing of all mankind through this gospel plan. (3) That the prophetic, historic and scientific record and the Testimony of Jesus establishes the fact of Joseph Smith being Divinely called; (4) That the line of the evidence carefully assembled sometimes calls for the setting aside of pre-conceived notions, conformably with the prophetic word and the demonstrated facts of history and science." --------------------------- THE ROYAL LINE - CHART PREPARED FOR THE NEW YORK STAKE GENEALOGICAL BOARD THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION - MARCH 1936 Compiled from - "The Kinship of families" by Archibald F. Bennett "Adam to New Chart" by Mrs. Eva Sells Jaeger "Europe's Royal Family Tree" by E. L. Sandberg "Pedigree of Joseph Smith, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Franklin D Roosevelt" by Karl Weiss "Present Time and Prophecies" by James H. Anderson Bible, Pearl of Great Price Secular History (Notice - These copies are presented to you with some misspelling and omission due to human errors. We offer it as a challenge to anyone to correct them.) Abraham 3:23 - "And God saw these souls that were good and He said, I will make these my rulers." -------------------------- 13th Cousin 7 times removed - Digital Roots --------------------------- It was decreed in the councils of eternity, long before the foundations of the earth were laid, that [Joseph Smith] should be the man, in the last dispensation of this world, to bring forth the word of God to the people, and receive the fullness of the keys and power of the Priesthood of the Son of God. The Lord had His eye upon him, and upon their progenitors clear back to Abraham, and from Abraham to the flood, from the flood to Enoch, and from Enoch to Adam. He has watched that family and that blood as it has circulated from its fountain to the birth of that man. [Joseph Smith] was foreordained in eternity to preside over this last dispensation. -- JD, 7:289-90 ---------------------- Joseph Smith, Jr. 1805-1844 - American religious figure the translated the Book of Mormon and organized The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830. POWER POINT: 1. JOSEPH SMITH'S NEW ENGLAND HERITAGE 2. John Smith, son of Asael Smith and brother of Joseph Smith, Sr. 3. Grandsons of Solomon Mack: Chilion Mack (left) and Solomon Mack III (right, Lucy's father) 4. Lucy Mack Smith 5. Charlemagne, Coronation of 6. Constantine I 7. Alfred the Great 8. IT IS A LOVE OF LIBERTY WHICH INSPIRES MY SOUL. CIVIL AND RELIGIOUS LIBERTY WERE DIFFUSED INTO MY SOUL BY MY GRANDFATHERS WHILE THEY DANGLED ME ON THEIR KNEES. -- JOSEPH SMITH JR. 9. JOSEPH SMITH'S NEW ENGLAND HERITAGE 10. KINDRED SPIRITS, THOUGH SEPARATED BY TIME, ARE NONETHELESS STILL BOUND BY PURPOSE, FOR NO GREAT CAUSE IS ACCOMPLISHED IN A GENERATION. THE HOPE, VISION AND FAITH OF OUR NOBLE FOREBEARS MUST BECOME OURS. AS WE STAND UPON THEIR SHOULDERS, SO IN SOME FUTURE DAY OTHERS MAY BE BLESSED TO STAND ON OURS. JOSEPH F. MCCONKIE 11. JOSEPH SMITH and EMMA 12. JOSEPH SMITH 13. FIVE CHILDREN OF JOSEPH AND EMMA 14. (BLANK) 15. JOSEPH SMITH BIRTHPLACE, SHARON TOWNSHIP, VERMONT- WHEN JOSEPH WAS BORN, ALL HIS GRANDPARENTS, AUNTS AND UNCLES, LIVED WITHIN A 20 MILE RADIUS. JOSEPH HAD THEIR ASSOCIATION UNTIL HE WAS 11. 16. TUNBRIDGE, VERMONT 17. MAP-NEW HAMPSHIRE, VERMONT, CONNECTICUT 18. MAP-SHARON, VERMONT, TUNBRIDGE, ROYALTON 19. JOHN SMITH, SON OF ASAEL SMITH AND BROTHER OF JOSEPH SMITH, SR. 20. THE FORFATHERS WERE PEOPLE WHO CALLED THEMSELVES NEW ISRAEL, OR THE SAINTS OF THE LATTER-DAY, WHO SAID THEIR CHILDREN WERE BORN UNDER THE COVENANT, WHO BELIEVED THEY HAD BEEN BROUGHT OUT OF CAPTIVITY BY ISRAEL'S GOD, WHO CALLED THEIR JOURNEY TO AMERICA AN EXODUS TO THE LAND OF PROMISE. 21. THE SAINTS LEFT LEYDEN, THAT GOODLY AND PLEASANT CITY, WHICH HAD BEEN OUR RESTING PLACE FOR NEAR 12 YEARS. WE KNEW WE WERE PILGRIMS AND LOOKED NOT MUCH ON THOSE THINGS, BUT LIFTED UP OUR EYES TO THE HEAVENS, OUR DEAREST COUNTRY AND QUIETED OUR SPIRITS. (WILLIAM BRADFORD) 22. "ALL THINGS STOOD UPON US WITH A WEATHER-BEATEN FACE -- SHORTLY HALF OUR COMPANY DIED, SOMETIMES TWO OR THREE A DAY, AND OF ONE HUNDRED ODD, SCARCE FIFTY REMAINED. IN THESE BITTER YEARS OUR HUSBANDS, OUR WIVES, OUR BABES DIED SINGLY, IN GROUPS, IN VAST COMPANIES, AND CONSIDERING ALL THE ROADS TO DEATH, I DO THANK MY GOD THEY DIE BUT ONCE." WILLIAM BRADFORD PLIMOUTH VILLAGE EARLY SURVIVAL HUTS MADE OF REEDS. 23. PLIMOUTH VILLAGE EXHIBITION, PLYMOUTH, MASSACHUSETTS 24. JOSEPH SMITH'S MAYFLOWER ANCESTORS - JOHN TILLEY AND WIFE, BRIDGET VANDER VELDE AND DAUGHTER, ELIZBETH TILLEY. JOHN AND BRIDGET DIED IN THE FIRST WINTER AT PLYMOUTH, LEAVING ELIZABETH WHO WAS 13. 25. JOSEPH SMITH'S MAYFLOWER ANCESTORS JOHN HOWLAND, SERVANT OF JOHN CARVER WHO DIED IN 1621 OF SUNSTROKE WHILE TOILING IN HIS CORNFIELD). JOHN HOWLAND INHERITED CARVERS ESTATE. HE MARRIED ELIZABETH TILLEY IN 1621 OR 1624. 26. JOHN HOWLAND OVERBOARD IN A MIGHTY STORM, A LUSTIE YOUNG MAN (CALLED JOHN HOWLAND), COMING UPON SOME OCCASION ABOVE YE GRATTINGS, WAS, WITH A SEALE OF YE SHIPPE, THROWNE INTO YE SEA; BUT IT PLEASED GOD YET HE CAUGHT HOLD OF YE TOPE-SAILE HALLARDS WHICH HUNG OVER-BOARD .. YET HE HELD HIS HOULD (THOUGH HE WAS SUNDRIE FADOMES UNDER WATER) TILL HE WAS HALD UP. -- WILLIAM BRADFORD 27. HOWLAND HOUSE, PLYMOUTH, MASSACHUSETTS ------------------ (JOSEPH SMITH'S ANCESTRY SPRINGS OUT OF THE MOVEMENT WHICH PRODUCED FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE AND LIBERTY. THE FOREFATHERS WERE PEOPLE WHO CALLED THEMSELVES NEW ISRAEL, OR THE SAINTS OF THE LATTER-DAY, WHO SAID THEIR CHILDREN WERE BORN UNDER THE COVENANT, WHO BELIEVED THEY HAD BEEN BROUGHT OUT OF CAPTIVITY BY ISRAEL'S GOD, WHO CALLED THEIR JOURNEY TO AMERICA AN EXODUS TO THE LAND OF PROMISE. THE SAINTS LEFT LEYDEN, THAT GOODLY AND PLEASANT CITY WHICH HAD BEEN OUR RESTING PLACE FOR NEAR 12 YEARS. WE KNEW WE WERE PILGRIMS AND LOOKED NOT MUCH ON THOSE THINGS, BUT LIFTED UP OUR EYES TO THE HEAVENS, OUR DEAREST COUNTRY AND QUIETED OUR SPIRITS. (WILLIAM BRADFORD) "ALL THINGS STOOD UPON US WITH A WEATHER-BEATEN FACE -- SHORTLY HALF OUR COMPANY DIED, SOMETIMES TWO OR THREE A DAY, AND OF ONE HUNDRED ODD, SCARCE FIFTY REMAINED. IN THESE BITTER YEARS OUR HUSBANDS, OUR WIVES, OUR BABES DIED SINGLY, IN GROUPS, IN VAST COMPANIES, AND CONSIDERING ALL THE ROADS TO DEATH, I DO THANK MY GOD THEY DIE BUT ONCE." --WILLIAM BRADFORD) ------------------------- 28. JOSEPH SMITH'S MAYFLOWER ANCESTORS - JOHN HOWLAND 1592-1672/3(*old/new style calendars) + ELIZABETH TILLEY 1607-1687 JOHN HOWLAND 1627-1704 + MARY LEE 1630-1693 HANNAH HOWLAND 1661-1720 + JONATHAN CROCKER 1662-1746 HANNAH CROCKER 1688-1751 + SHUBAL FULLER 1688-1851 LYDIA FULLER 1709-1778 _ DANIEL GATES 1706/07(*old/new style calendars)-1776 LYDIA GATES 1732-1818 + SOLOMON MACK 1732-1820 LUCY MACK 1775-1856 + JOSEPH SMITH, SR. 1771-1840 JOSEPH SMITH JR. 29. EMMA SMITH'S MAYFLOWER ANCESTORS - JOHN HOWLAND 159-1672/3* & ELIZABETH TILLEY 1607-1687 HOPE HOWLAND & JOHN CHIPMAN HOPE CHIPMAN & JOHN HUCKINS ELIZABETH HUCKINS & JOHN LEWIS GERSHOM LEWIS & MAY MALTBY NATHANIEL LEWIS & ESTHER TUTTLE ELIZABETH LEWIS & ISAAC HALE EMMA HALE 30. JOSEPH SMITH'S MAYFLOWER ANCESTORS (CONT'D) EDWARD & ANN FULLER, THEIR SON SAMUEL FULLER; EDWARD AND ANN DIED IN THE FIRST WINTER AT PLIMOUTH, LEAVING THEIR 11-YEAR OLD SON SAMUEL CAED FOR BY OTHER MEMBERS OF THE MAYFLOWER COMPANY. 31. EDWARD FULLER (1575-1620) & ANN FULLER (1579-1620) MARRIED 1609. SAMUEL FULLER (1612-1683) & JANE LATHROP (1614-1683) MARRIED 1635. JOHN FULLER (1656-1726) & MEHITABLE ROWLEY (1660-1732) MARRIED 1768. SHUBAL FULLER (1684-1748) & HANNAH CROCKER (1688- ) MARRIED 1708. LYDIA FULLER (1709-1778) & DANIEL GATES (1706-1776). MARRIED 1729. LYDIA GATES (1732-1817) & SOLOMON MACK (1732-1820) MARRIED 1759. LUCY MACK (1775-1885) & JOSEPH SMITH, SR. (1771-1830) MARRIED 1796. JOSEPH SMITH, JR. 32. SAMUEL FULLER (1612-1683) & JANE LATHROP (1614-1683) MARRIED 1635. 33. THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT (DRAFTED AND SIGNED ON BOARD THE MAYFLOWER AS THAT SHIP APPROACHED CAPE COD ON NOV. 11, 1620.) ... HAVING UNDERTAKEN, FOR THE GLORY OF GOD AND THE ADVANCEMENTS OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH AND HONOR OF OUR KING AND COUNTRY, A VOYAGE TO PLANT THE FIRST COLONY IN THE NOTHERN PARTS OF VIRGINIA, ... FRAME SUCH JUST AND EQUAL LAWS, ORDINANCES, ACTS, CONSTITUTIONS, AND OFFICES, FROM TIME TO TIME ... UNTO WHICH WE PROMISE ALL DUE SUBMISSION AND OBEDIENCE. 34. CONTINUED MAYFLOWER COMPACT - IN WITNESS WHEREOF WE HAVE SUBSCRIBED OUR NAMES AT CAPE COD THE 11TH OF NOVEMBER, THE YEAR OF OUR SOVEREIGN LORD KING JAMES OF ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND IRELAND THE 18TH AND OF SCOTLAND THE FIFTY FOURTH, ANNO DOMINIE, 1620 JOHN CARVER, WILLIAM BRADFORD, EDWARD WINSLOW, WILLIAM BREWSTER, ISAAC ALLERTON, MYLES STANDISH, JOHN ALDEN, SAMUEL FULLER, CHRISTOPHER MARTIN, WILLIAM MULLINS, WILLIAM WHITE, RICHARD WARREN, JOHN HOWLAND, STEPHEN HOPKINS, EDWARD TILLEY, JOHN TILLEY, FRANCIS COOKE, THOMAS ROGERS, JOHN TURNER, FRANCIS EATON, JAMES CHILTON, JOHN CRAKSTON, JOHN BILLINGTON, MOSES FLETCHER; JOHN GOODMAN, DEGORY PRIEST, THOMAS TINKER, JOHN RIGDALE, EDWARD FULLER, THOMAS WILLIAMS GILBERT WINSLOW, EDMUND MARGESON, PETR BROWN, RICHARD BRITTERIGE, GEORGE SOULE, RICHARD CLARKE, RICHARD GARDINER, JOHN ALLERTON, THOMAS ENGLISH, EDWARD DOTY, EDWARD LEISTER. 35. SOLOMON MACK - THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 36. THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 174-1763 (NOT A CLEAR PICTURE). 37. THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR WAS WAGED TO DETERMINE WHO WOULD CONTROL NEW ENGLAND AND EXTENDED SOIL, A FRENCH CATHOLIC CANADA OR THE BRITISH CHILDREN OF THE REFORMATION. SOLOMON MACK ENLISTED FOR THE CAMPAIGNS OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR IN THE LAKE GEORGE -- LAKE CHAMPLAIN SECTOR. (ANDERSON 7) 38. SOLOMON MACK AT FORT EDWARD BECAUSE HIS OXEN WERE LOST, HE TOOK A COMPANION TO SEARCH THEIR PREVIOUS ROUTE THROUGH DANGEROUS FOREST. SUDDENLY SOLOMON MACK CONFRONTED FOUR HOSILE INDIANS SOM 150 YARDS AHEAD, ARMED WITH KNIVES, TOMAHAWKS, AND GUNS. WITH NOTHING BUT HIS OWN NERVE AND A SINGLE REINFORCEMENT 100 YARDS BEHIND, SOLOMON "SAW NO OTHER WAY TO SAVE MYSELF ONLY TO DECEIVE THEM BY STRATAGEM:" I EXCLAIMED LIKE THIS "RUSH ON! RUSH ON! BRAVE BOYS, WE'LL HAVE THE DEVILS! WE'LL HAVE THE DEVILS!" I HAD NO OTHER WEAPON ONLY A STAFF; BUT I RAN TOWARDS THEM AND THE OTHER MAN APPEARING IN SIGHT, GAVE THEM A TERRIBLE FRIGHT, AND I SAW THEM NO MORE, BUT I AM BOUND TO SAY THE GRASS DID NOT GROWN UNDER MY FEET. (ANDERSON 7) 39. THE BRITISH DEFEATED THE FRENCH AND THEIR INDIAN ALLIES IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754-1763). THE RESULT WAS BRITISH CONTROL OVER MUCH OF NOTH AMERICA. BUT THE WAR HAD COST ENGLAND A GREAT DEAL OF MONEY AND PARLIAMENT DECIDED IT WAS TIME FO THE COLONIES TO PAY A SHARE FOR THEIR OWN DEFENSE THIS LED TO "TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION" AND THEN TO THE REVOLUTION. 40. 1775-1783 AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR 41. WASHINGTON WROTE OF THE "GLOOMY WAR PROSPECT" IN 1775; "OUR WANT OF POWDER IS INCONCEIVABLE." SOLOMON TRAVELED TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW'S IN HIS NATIVE CONNECTICUT TO LEARN HOW TO MANUFACTURE SALTPETER, AND DURING THE REVOLUTION HE VISITED SPRINGFIELD AND LONGMEADOWS, IN WESTERN MASSACHUSETTS, TO BUILD THIS TECHNOLOGY THERE. HE WAS THEN "SENT FROM TOWN TO TOWN" AT WAGES OF "ONE DOLLAR PER DAY." "I THEN ENLISTED INTO THE AMERICAN ARMY. I SOON MUSTERED TWO TEAMS AND CARRIED BAGGAGE TO SKEENESBOROUGH, I AFTERWARDS ENLISTED INTO A COMPANY OF ARTILLERY FOR A SHOT CAMPAIGN." (ANDERSON 12-13). SINCE BRITAIN HAD CONTROLLED ALL AMERICAN RAW GOODS THE PATRIOTS HAD A DEARTH OF GUN POWDER OR BALLS (BULLETS) TO WAGE WAR. SOLOMON RESPONDED TO WASHINGTON'S CALL. 42. IN ANOTHER CAMPAIGN SOLOMON RECORDS "WITH OUR SMALL ARMS WE KILLED FORTY OF THE ENEMY. WE SENT OUR CABIN BOYS UP TO THE SHORE WITH A WOUNDED MAN. JUST AS THE BOYS ENTERED THE DOOR THERE CAME AN EIGHTEEN POUNDER INTO THE HOUSE, AND THE WOMAN WAS FRYING CAKES OVER THE FIRE, SAYS THE WOMEN TO THE BOYS, TAKE THE CAKES AND I WILL GO DOWN INTO THE CELLAR." (ANDERSON, P 54). 43. SAMUEL SMITH OF TOPSFIELD (1714-1784), REV. WAR POSITIONS HELD - COMMITTEE OF SAFETY, 1775-1785 REPRESENTATIVE TO THE GENERAL COURT, 1764-1770, 1772, 1777, 1778, 1781 PROVINCIAL CONGRESS, OCT 1774 AT CONCORD SECOND PROVINCIAL CONGRESS, FEB. 1775, CAMBRIDGE, HIS SERVICE EXTENDED THROUGH LEXINGTON AND BUNKER HILL BATTLES. CHAIRMAN OF TEA COMMITTEE, 1773-1774 TOPSFIELD COMMITTEE FOR CORRESPONDENCE, 1773. SERVED UNDER GENERAL WASHINGTON, DIED INSOLVENT DUE TO WORTHLESS CONTINENTAL DOLLAR, 1785. 44. HOME OF SAMUEL AND ASAEL SMITH, TOPSFIELD, MA. 45. BATTLE OF BUNKER (BREED'S) HILL 46. BATTLE OF BUNKER (BREED'S) HILL 47. IN ... 1776, ASAEL MUSTERED UNDER CAPTAIN JOHN NESMITH IN "A COMPANY RAISED FOR CANADA SERVICE, "AN ACT OF OBVIUS HARDSHIP FOR A FAMILY HEAD WITH SIX DEPENDENTS. HIS REGIMENT WAS ENROLLED TO DEFEND NEW YORK'S NORTHERN FRONTIER. POSSIBLY EXERTION AND DISEASE TOOK THEIR TOLL IN 1776--A DECADE LATER ASAEL WAS "IN A LOW STATE OF HEALTHY, ENTIRELY UNABLE TO LABOUR FOR THREE YEARS." (ANDERSON 118). 48. THE TREASON OF BENEDICT ARNOLD AND THE CAPTURE OF MAJOR JOHN ANDRE' EMMA'S COUSIN, BENJAMIN TALMADGE WAS ANDRE'S GUARD. JOSEPH'S COUSIN, BENJAMIN GOULD DISCOVERED ARNOLD'S TREASON AT WEST POINT. 49. EMMA'S FATHER, ISAAC HALE, JOINED THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR FROM VERMONT AT AGE 17. HER GRANDFATHER, RUBEN HALE, FROM CONNECTICUT, FOUGHT IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR AND IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. JOSEPH SMITH, SR., AT AGE 12 WAS ALSO INVOLVED IN THE WAR. 50. SIGNING OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION, BY DEL PARSON - "WE BELIEVE THAT GOVERNMENTS WERE INSTITUTED BY GOD FOR THE BENEFIT OF MAN; AND THAT HE HOLDS MEN ACCOUNTABLE FOR THEIR ACTS IN THE RELATION TO THEM, BOTH IN MAKING LAWS AND ADMINISTERING THEM, FOR THE GOOD AND SAFETY OF SOCIETY ... "WE BELIEVE THAT ALL MEN ARE BOUND TO SUSTAIN AND UPHOLD THE RESPECTIVE GOVERNMENTS IN WHICH THEY RESIDE, WHILE PROTECTED IN THEIR INHERENT AND INALIENABLE RIGHTS BY THE LAWS OF SUCH GOVERNMENT." (D&C 124:1, 5) 51. ASAEL'S LETTER TO PETER TOWN: (GOD) HAS CONDUCTED US THROUGH A GLORIOUS REVOLUTION AND HAS BROUGHT US INTO THE PROMISED LAND OF PEACE AND LIBERTY ... AND I BELIEVE THAT THE STONE IS NOW CUT OUT OF THE MOUNTAIN WITHOUT HANDS, SPOKEN OF BY DANIEL, AND HAS SMITTEN THE IMAGE UPON HIS FEET, BY WHICH THE IRON, THE CLAY, THE BRASS, THE SILVER AND THE GOLD, ALL THE MONARCHIAL AND ECCLESIASTICAL TYRANNY WILL BE BROKEN TO PIECES AND BECOME AS THE CHAFF OF THE SUMMER THRESHING FLOOR, THE WIND SHALL CARRY THEM ALL AWAY, THAT THERE SHALL BE NO PLACE FOUND FOR THEM. 52. ASAEL ALSO SAID REPEATEDLY: IT HAS BEEN BORN IN UPON MY SOUL THAT ONE OF MY DESCENDANTS WILL PROMULGATE A WORK THAT WILL CHANGE THE COURSE OF RELIGIOUS HISTORY IN THE EARTH. (He died in 1830.) 53. THIS MAY CERTIFY ALL WHOM IT MAY CONCERN THAT WE WHOSE NAMES ARE HERE UNDER WRITTEN HAVE REGULARLY FORMED OURSELVES INTO A SOCIETY AND WISH TO BE KNOWN BY THE NAME OR FORME (Sic) OF UNIVERSALISTS AND WHEREAS THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF VERMONT ALLOW FREE LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE, TO WORSHIP GOD ACCORDING TO THE DICTATES THEREOF AND IT BEING CONTRARY TO THE DICTATES OF OUR CONSCIENCE, TO PAY MONEY TO SUPPORT ANY TEACHER OF A DIFERENT (sic) DENOMINATION AGREEABLE THEREFORE TO THE LIBERTY OF THE LAWS OF OUR STATE WE WISH NOT TO BE CHARGED WITH ANY TAX TOWARD THE SUPPORT OF ANY TEACHER OF AN DIFERENT (sic) DENOMINATION WHATEVER. SIGNERS: ALEXANDER STEDMAN ABNER BOROUGH BENONI POLLY ASAEL SMITH DAVID GROW EBENE TILLEY PETER GROW LEVI STEDMAN WM. CLEMENTS SAMUEL BRANCH JOHN RIDLE DELIVERANCE BROWN ABEL CAMP, JR. JOSEPH SMITH DANIEL HUNT JUN. JESSE SMITH EDWARD GROW. THE ABOVE IS A TRUE COPY OF THE RECORD BY ORDER OF ASAEL SMITH MODERATOR WM. CLEMENTS CLERK FOR SAID SOCIETY TUNBRIDGE, DECEMBER 6, 1797. 54. PICTURE ? 55. JOSEPH SMITH SR. FARM, TUNBRIDGE, VT. 56. JOSEPH SMITH, SR. AND LUCY MACK SMITH 57. JOSEPH SMITH, SR. (2 PICTURES) 58. CHILDREN OF JOSEPH SMITH SR. AND LUCY MACK 1. SON 2. ALVIN 3. HYRUM 4. SOPHRONIA 5. JOSEPH JR. 6. SAMUEL HARRISON 7. EPHRAIM 8. WILLIAM 9. CATHERINE 10. DON CAROLOS 11. LUCY 59. FAMILY REMINISCENCES - WE ALWAYS HAD FAMILY PRAYERS SINCE I CAN REMEMBER. I WELL REMEMBER FATHER USED TO CARRY HIS SPECTACLES IN HIS VEST POCKET, ... AND WHEN US BOYS SAW HIM FEEL FOR HIS SPECKS, WE KNEW THAT WAS A SIGNAL TO GET READY FOR PRAYER, AND IF WE DID NOT NOTICE IT MOTHER WOULD "WILLIAM," OR WHOEVER WAS THE NEGLIGENT ONE, "GET READY FOR PRAYER." - WILLIAM SMITH. 60. DEC. 23, 1805, JOSEPH SMITH, JR., WAS BORN -- A CHILD DESTINED TO CHANGE THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE EARTH. "I SAW TWO PERSONAGES WHOSE BRIGHTNESS AND GLORY DEFY ALL DESCRIPTION, STANDING ABOVE ME IN THE AIR. ONE OF THEM SPAKE UNTO ME, CALLING ME BY NAME AND SAID, POINTING TO THE OTHER - THIS IS MY BELOVED SON. HEAR HIM!" 61. FAMILY OF JOSEPH SMITH, JR. AND EMMA HALE - SIX CHILDREN DIED IN INFANCY ALVIN, THADDEUS, LOUISA, JOSEPH MURDOCK, JULIA MURDOCK, JOSEPH III, FREDRICK G., ALEXANDER, DON CARLOS, THOMAS, DAVID HYRUM. ------------------------- SECOND COMING BY HARRY ANDERSON CHAPTER ONE Prelude to the Restoration Time Line Date Significant Event 34-100 Apostles lead New Testament church 60-70 Peter and Paul martyre 325 Council of Nicaean 1300-1500 European Renaissance 1438 Gutenberg refined movable type 1492 Columbus made first voyage to American 1517 Luther rebelled against Catholic church 1620 Pilgrims arrived in Plymouth 1740-60 First Great Awakening 1775-83 American Revolutionary War 1789 American Constitution established 1790-1830 The second Great Awakening The restoration of the gospel of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Zion are the two great events in the history of mankind that precede the second coming of Jesus Christ. "The building up of Zion is a cause that has interested the people of God in every age," wrote the Prophet Joseph Smith. "It is a theme upon which prophets, priests and kings have dwelt with peculiar delight; they have looked forward with joyful anticipation to the day in which we live." This latter-day restoration is the last act in God's divine drama for his children before the Millennium. This is the "dispensation of the fulness of times" (Ephesians 1:10) in which the "restitution of all things" would take place as the Lord promised through "all his holy prophets since the world began" (Acts 3:21). The gospel is actually older than the earth itself. Its principles are eternal and were made known to God's children in the councils in heaven. The Father's plan centered on Jesus Christ, who was chosen to be the "Lamb slain from the foundation of the world" (Revelation 13:8). In those councils our Heavenly Father explained that the earth would provide a place of testing for his children, declaring, "And we will prove them herewith, to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God shall command them" (Abraham 3:25). Therefore, the Father granted his children the eternal principle of agency so that they might choose good over evil. Lucifer rebelled against the Father and his plan and was cast out of heaven. He became known as Satan, or the devil, the father of all lies, who on earth would deceive men and "lead them captive at his will, even as many as would not hearken unto [God's] voice" (Moses 4:4). On the other hand, God has raised up prophets to teach his children the saving principles and ordinances of the gospel of Jesus Christ. From the beginning there has been a struggle between the kingdoms of God and Satan. The Church of Jesus Christ, the Lord's earthly organization, was established at times on the earth to gather the chosen and obedient children of God into a covenant society and to train them to fight evil. The true Church has the necessary principles and ordinances of the gospel of Jesus Christ that lead to eternal life. A period when the Lord reveals his gospel doctrines, ordinances, and priesthood, is called a dispensation. For example, there were the dispensations of Adam, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and of the Nephites. These dispensations gave the faithful and obedient the opportunity on earth to overcome the wicked world and prepare for eternal life by conforming to the principles and ordinances of the gospel of Jesus Christ. Time after time the flowering of the true Church was followed by an apostasy, or a falling away from the truth. Thus in world history these flowerings and apostasies were cyclical. Each time the Lord's people fell into apostasy, there came a need for a restoration of the gospel. The Restoration discussed in this text is simply the last in the series of restorations that have occurred through the ages. The New Testament Church When the Lord Jesus Christ was born into mortality and ministered among Israel, he restored the gospel and the higher priesthood. He organized a church with a "foundation of the apostles and prophets" (Ephesians 2:20) to carry on the work after him. The Savior spent much of his ministry privately tutoring his Apostles, giving them the authority and keys to continue the work after his death. He chose Peter, James, and John to be the presiding Apostles. At his ascension he commissioned the Apostles to carry the message of salvation unto all the world. The Church was small in numbers when the Apostles assumed its leadership. Just over a week after the Savior's ascension, the Holy Spirit was manifest in rich abundance on the Day of Pentecost as the Apostles taught the gospel and bore witness of the reality of the resurrected Lord. On this occasion three thousand people were baptized into the Church. The Apostles continued to minister with power and authority resulting in the conversion of additional thousands. So far, the gospel had been confined to the house of Israel. One day, however, as Peter was praying on the roof of a house in Joppa, he had a vision in which he learned that God is no respecter of persons, that no group should be regarded as unclean, and that the gospel should go to the Gentiles as well as to the Jews (see Acts 10:948 ). At the time of his ascension into heaven, the Savior commissioned his disciples to "be witnesses unto me . . . unto the uttermost part of the earth" (Acts 1:8). The spread of early Christianity. By the end of the first century A.D. the Apostles had taken the gospel north into Syria and Asia Minor; west to Macedonia, Greece, Italy, and the isles of the Mediterranean; then to northeastern Africa, and Egypt. A century later Christian communities existed in Gaul (France), Germany, and the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) as well as in northwestern Africa. The conversion of Saul of Tarsus sometime later was of great significance to the growth of the Church. Saul, who had been persecuting the early believers, beheld the Savior in a bright light while on the road to Damascus. "I am Jesus whom thou persecutest" (Acts 9:5), proclaimed the risen Lord to the stricken Pharisee. And Saul, the agent of the Sanhedrin, became Paul the defender of the faith, a "chosen vessel" (Acts 9:15) to proclaim the name of Christ before Gentiles and kings. Over the next thirty years this intrepid Apostle, along with many other devoted disciples who accompanied him, spread the gospel message and established branches of the Church throughout much of the Roman Empire. As growth continued and branches multiplied, elders, bishops, deacons, priests, teachers, and evangelists (patriarchs) were called and given proper authority by the Apostles. The Great Apostasy While the Apostles and other missionaries were courageously working to establish the Lord's kingdom on earth, the seeds of apostasy were already sprouting within the Church. Peter wrote that there were false teachers already among the people and that still others would come "who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction" (2 Peter 2:1). Peter also predicted that "many shall follow their pernicious ways" (v. 2). Paul similarly testified that out of the congregation of believers would "men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them" (Acts 20:30). But internal apostasy and disbelief were not the only challenges the early missionaries faced. While it was generally Roman policy to extend cultural and religious freedom to their subjects, there were intermittent periods when the Christians were severely persecuted, making it difficult for them to worship openly and proclaim the "good news" of the gospel. Naturally, at such times the Church leaders were especially targeted for imprisonment and death. The first notable Roman persecution occurred during the reign of Nero, who made the Christians the scapegoat for the burning of Rome in A.D. 64. Tradition says the Apostle Peter was crucified upside down and that later, in A.D. 67-68, the Apostle Paul was beheaded by the order of the emperor. At first the Twelve perpetuated the apostolic office. For example, Matthias, who was not of the original Twelve, was called to be an Apostle. But through the spirit of prophecy, the leaders of the Church eventually recognized that an apostasy was not only inevitable but imminent. As the Apostles were killed, revelation to guide the Lord's church ceased, along with authority to operate it. The years after the Apostles died provided ample evidence of the predicted demise of Christ's church. Principles of the gospel were corrupted by being mixed with prevailing pagan philosophies. Loss of the Holy Spirit was evidenced by a gradual disappearance of spiritual gifts. Changes were made in church organization and government, and essential ordinances of the gospel were modified. According to President Joseph Fielding Smith, the results of the Apostasy were devastating: "Satan in his wrath drove the [Church] into the wilderness, or from the earth; the power of the Priesthood was taken from among men, and after the Church with its authority and gifts disappeared from the earth, then in his anger the serpent continued his war upon all who had faith and sought the testimony of Jesus, desiring to worship God according to the dictates of conscience. So successful did he become that his dominion extended over all the known world." The Long, Dark Night The change from truth to error in the Church did not take place in a day. The Apostasy, hastened by the death of the Apostles in the latter half of the first century, gradually deepened during the years that followed. By the fourth century there was hardly a trace of the Church of Jesus Christ that was recognizable, and the "long, dark night" was well underway. With the Apostles gone, local church officers gradually assumed more authority. Bishops determined policy and doctrine for their local areas, claiming to be the proper successors to the Apostles. Gradually, a few bishops in key cities, such as Rome, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Antioch gained supreme authority in their entire regions. A great diversity of practices and dogma came as church leaders relied upon logic and rhetoric rather than upon revelation. "The compromising of truth and error, the assimilation of the gospel of Christ with the philosophies of men produced a new religion. This new religion was an appealing composite of New Testament Christianity, Jewish traditions, Greek philosophy, Graeco-Roman paganism, and the mystery religions." As the Christian church developed and spread, the Roman government changed its policy from mostly toleration to persecution. This was in part due to Christianity emerging as a group separate and distinct from Judaism, which had been allowed special privileges under Roman law. The Christians were considered antisocial in that they refused to hold political office, serve in the military, use the civil courts, or participate in public festivals. They were called atheists because there was no room in Christian monotheism for the Roman gods or for a deified emperor. For these reasons, and perhaps for others, the Romans sporadically launched attacks upon the church until the reign of Diocletian (A.D. 284-305). Diocletian determined to destroy everything that was not pagan as un-Roman. Churches were destroyed, scriptures burned, and Christians made to sacrifice or face torture. In an edict of 306 the persecution was ordered empire-wide. It was perhaps inevitable that the empire would be forced to rescind its anti-Christian legislation. The church continued to grow, and the weakening condition of the empire called for unity, not disharmony. Constantine, at the Milvian Bridge in A.D. 312, utilized the cross as his symbol as he crushed his opponent Maxentius. The next year at Milan, Constantine issued his famous Edict of Toleration which granted to all people the right to worship as they pleased, revoking the measures which had meant to suppress Christianity. Constantine the Great at the battle of Milvian Bridge in Rome. Constantine became the undisputed master of Rome and the western empire in A.D. 312. A year later Christianity secured toleration by his edict of Milan. Victories in 324 brought him control of the eastern half of the empire, and the following year the Council of Nicaea was convened to begin the religious unification of the empire. In 330 he moved his capital to Constantinople to get away from Rome, the stronghold of paganism, and to facilitate making Christianity the state religion. The dramatic moment of Constantine's conversion, when he claimed to see in vision a flaming cross in the noonday sky with the legend "By This Conquer," is captured in Gian Lorenzo Bernini's Constantine, now located in the Vatican. Constantine himself did not become a Christian until he lay dying, but his acceptance and endorsement of Christianity placed the church in partnership with the aims of the empire. The desperate need to strengthen Roman unity is credited for Constantine's interest in the theological dispute within the church. To resolve a dispute over the nature of the Godhead, Constantine was instrumental in calling the Council of Nicaea, the first of the great ecumenical councils, in a city just south of his capital in A.D. 325. The creed that emerged from the council's deliberation, and was approved by the emperor, is a classic example of the way apostasy results when revelation is supplanted by argumentation and decree. As similar conflicts were resolved during the following centuries, a strong alliance developed between the state and the church, ensuring a growing secular influence upon the doctrines and practices of the church. By the time of the barbarian invasion of Western Europe in the fifth century, many of the Germanic tribes already had been reached by various types of Christian missionaries. Therefore they took quickly to Roman culture and Catholicism. The sack of Rome in A.D. 410, however, was a clear signal that the empire was not invulnerable. The masses of Goths, Vandals, and Huns who crossed the imperial boundaries turned the unity of the West into a shambles, leaving behind the beginning of several nationalist states. Local political leaders exerted increased influence over the church in their areas at the expense of Rome. For the next several centuries, the churches in the various developing European countries became in effect the fiefs or feudal estates of the lords of the manors. Culture, education, and general morals retrogressed. It was a beginning of the time often referred to in history as the Dark Ages. Renaissance and Reformation By the fourteenth century, Europeans began to show renewed interest in classical Greece and Rome, resulting in a flowering of literature, science, and art. It was, in effect, a period of "rebirth," or "renaissance," when men with confidence in themselves started to explore new ways of exploiting their environment. Artists turned from dreary mysticism to employ their skills using new techniques in sculpture, art, and literature. It was an age of naturalism-when the tools of science and art were applied to glorify the human body and to erect vast new cathedrals. Men seemed to unshackle themselves from old ways. Gunpowder revolutionized warfare; the mariners' compass opened new vistas of travel and exploration; commerce was launched into the vast reaches of the Orient; and the Western Hemisphere was discovered. In the fifteenth century printing by movable type was greatly refined, and the whole field of printing gained new potential. This of course directly affected the rise of the universities and the dissemination of information. The Renaissance was also a time of spiritual change. In their search for the classical past, men were introduced to the writings of the early church fathers and to copies of the scriptures in Hebrew and Greek. The scholars of the Renaissance began making these works available to the common people. Discovering the simplicity of the early church as opposed to the ritual and complexity of medieval Christianity led many to discover "anew" their original faith. These people founded or joined new religious orders, such as the Franciscans and Dominicans, as well as heretical movements, such as the Albigensians and Waldensians. In a sense, the effects of the Renaissance provided a setting for the Protestant reformation, which tore asunder the unity of Christendom once and for all. Martin Luther (1483-1546) was an Augustinian monk who challenged the doctrines and structure of the Roman Catholic church. He translated the Bible into German and otherwise defied the traditions of the Roman church. He was excommunicated from the Roman church and led the German Reformation. Courtesy of the Library of Congress The most famous of the Reformers was Martin Luther, who was born in Eisleben, Saxony, on 10 November 1483. When he was eighteen he was sent by his father, Hans Luther, to Erfurt to prepare for a career in law. In 1505, however, he abandoned his legal training to enter the monastery of the Augustinian Order of Eremites. In 1508 he was sent to Wittenberg to further his studies in theology and lecture on Aristotle's philosophy. From his earliest years, he seemed to have been tormented by the wide discrepancy between the doctrines and teachings of the scriptures and the practices of Catholicism. During a journey to Rome in 1510, he was shocked at the corruption of the clergy and the religious apathy of the people. This did much to dispel the veneration in which he had held the papacy and armed him to challenge its authority. Luther's intensive study of the Bible led him to the doctrinal position that later came to mark the reform movement: that men are justified by faith alone (see Romans 3:28) and not by their good works. That which most provoked Luther's direct opposition to the Church of Rome was the sale of indulgences by the agents of Pope Leo X. These indulgences were offered to repay Albert of Mainz his cost in acquiring the archbishopric of Mainz and to continue work on St. Peter's unfinished basilica. The purchase of indulgences granted individuals the remission of sin and punishment in purgatory and complete remission of all sins for the dead. On 31 October 1517, Luther nailed to the church door at Wittenberg his Ninety-five Theses, which challenged the church to debate on the efficacy of indulgences and the church's sacramental practices. Luther's theses were originally written to promote discussion among scholars, but the masses soon saw in him a champion and public hero. He defended himself against prelate and scholar and finally was even heard by the imperial diet (assembly) at Worms in 1521. By this time his movement had moved beyond the merely religious to the political, and the unity of the Holy Roman Empire was threatened. When Luther was ordered to give up his work, he boldly declared: "Unless I be refuted by Scriptural testimonies, or by clear arguments-for I believe neither the Pope nor the councils alone, since it is clear that they have often erred and contradicted one another-I am convinced by the passages of Scripture, which I have cited, and my conscience is bound in the word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything; since it is insecure and dangerous to act against conscience." Luther's resistance led to his excommunication from the church and to his being placed under the ban of the empire, which made him an outlaw. Luther was protected by German princes who sympathized with his ideas and who wanted more political autonomy from Rome. This protection enabled him to begin a German translation of the Bible. This translation was of transcendent importance in all of Europe because it was the first common language translation not based on Jerome's Latin Vulgate. Gradually new forms of worship and doctrinal innovations advocated by Luther were introduced in many of the German states. When it was evident the Catholic church would not reform, Luther's followers founded the Lutheran church. Lutheranism became the religion of many of the northern and central German states but never succeeded in winning Bavaria and the states to the east. The faith spread northward, however, into Scandinavia and from there into Iceland. While it cannot be said that Luther brought religious freedom to Europe, the strength of his movement at least assured a pluralistic society where other religious groups could work for toleration. Although Luther was the most famous of the Reformers, he was not the first. A century and a half earlier, in the 1300s, John Wycliffe in England denounced the corruption and abuses of the Catholic church and condemned the pope as anti-Christ. He translated the scriptures and circulated them among the common people. He was strongly condemned by the church, but his teachings were widely accepted among his countrymen. Thus, when Luther and other continental reformers began their work, many Englishmen sympathized with them. The Reformation in England was different than in other countries. King Henry VIII, who disapproved of Luther, insisted that the pope did not have the authority to deny Henry a divorce from his wife. A quarrel ensued in which the king rejected the pope's authority, and in 1533 the pope excommunicated the king. Henry then established the Church of England. The two major reformers in Switzerland were Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin. Zwingli convinced the citizens of Zurich that the Bible should be the only standard of religious truth. Using this standard Zwingli rejected life in a monastery, celibacy, the mass, and other Catholic practices. John Calvin was even more influential. At Geneva, he attempted to create a holy city around the biblical models. Gradually Calvinism became predominant in many parts of Switzerland, and from there it spread to France, England, Scotland, Holland, and in a lesser degree to Germany. John Knox, an early convert to Calvinism, helped refine and expand its teachings. The Pilgrims and Puritans, two strict Calvinist groups who came to the New World, greatly influenced American values. For example, basic tenets of Calvinism prominent in early America included the absolute sovereignty of God, the election of man to grace, the idea that saved church members were to be instruments in God's hand in redeeming others, and the concept that the church was to be "a light on the hill" to influence the affairs of men in this world. The work of all these reformers was in preparation for the restoration of the gospel. President Joseph Fielding Smith has written: "In preparation for this restoration the Lord raised up noble men, such as Luther, Calvin, Knox, and others whom we call reformers, and gave them power to break the shackles which bound the people and denied them the sacred right to worship God according to the dictates of conscience. . . . "Latter-day Saints pay all honor to these great and fearless reformers, who shattered the fetters which bound the religious world. The Lord was their Protector in this mission, which was fraught with many perils. In that day, however, the time had not come for the restoration of the fulness of the gospel. The work of the reformers was of great importance, but it was a preparatory work." Discovery and Colonization of America Another important preparation for the restoration of the gospel was the discovery and colonization of America. It had been preserved as a choice land from which the gospel would go to the nations of the earth in the last days. Moroni, an ancient American prophet, wrote: "Behold, this is a choice land, and whatsoever nation shall possess it shall be free from bondage, and from captivity, and from all other nations under heaven, if they will but serve the God of the land, who is Jesus Christ, who hath been manifested by the things which we have written" (Ether 2:12). The arrival of Christopher Columbus was seen in vision by Nephi, also an ancient American prophet, over two thousand years before Columbus was born. "And I looked and beheld a man among the Gentiles, who was separated from the seed of my brethren [descendants of Lehi], by the many waters; and I beheld the Spirit of God, that it came down and wrought upon the man; and he went forth upon the many waters, even unto the seed of my brethren, who were in the promised land" (1 Nephi 13:12). Columbus himself confirmed in his writings that he felt inspired in his ventures as a mariner and in establishing religion among the Indians. Nephi continued his prophecy: "And it came to pass that I beheld the Spirit of God, that it wrought upon other Gentiles; and they went forth out of captivity, upon the many waters" (1 Nephi 13:13). Many people who settled the promised land were led there by the hand of God (see 2 Nephi 1:6). Nephi foresaw many other events in America. He saw that the Lamanites would be scattered throughout the land by the Gentiles, and that the Gentiles would humble themselves and call upon the Lord, and the Lord would be with them. Nephi beheld that the Gentiles who had settled in North and South America would war against their "mother Gentiles" and would be delivered by the hand of the Lord (see 1 Nephi 13:1419 ). President Joseph Fielding Smith said, "The discovery [of America] was one of the most important factors in bringing to pass the purpose of the Almighty in the restoration of his Gospel in its fulness for the salvation of men in the latter days." Religious Freedom in America While many historians today insist that most early colonists came to America for economic reasons, many colonists were also seeking religious liberty. Among these were the Puritans, who established a powerful religious commonwealth in New England. They believed that they possessed the true faith and consequently did not tolerate any other religion. This intolerance had to be overcome before there could be a restoration of Christ's church. Certain dissenters among the Puritans, Roger Williams chief among them, argued that there ought to be a clear distinction between church and state and that no particular religion ought to be imposed upon the citizens. He also taught that all churches had fallen away from the true apostolic succession. Williams was banished from Massachusetts in 1635, and within a few years, he and others with similar ideas succeeded in obtaining a charter to establish the colony of Rhode Island, which allowed total toleration of all religions. A courageous woman, Anne Hutchinson, who went to Massachusetts in 1634, disagreed with the local leaders on two theological issues: the role of good works in salvation and whether or not an individual may receive inspiration from the Holy Spirit. Mrs. Hutchinson was likewise banished from Massachusetts, and she sought refuge in Rhode Island in 1638. Despite the efforts of Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, and others, religious toleration was not achieved in New England for another century and a half. Meanwhile, various religiously motivated groups established settlements throughout the rest of the American colonies. Each in its way contributed to the religious environment of America. Roman Catholics who settled Maryland passed the first toleration act in American history. Quakers in Pennsylvania also promoted religious tolerance and separation of church and state. The various colonists were of so many different faiths that it was impossible for any one denomination to predominate. This religious pluralism was a major reason for the religious liberties that became a unique feature of the United States. Even though there were many different churches in America, most colonists did not claim membership in any particular denomination. An important movement in American religious history was the Great Awakening, which began about 1739 and continued for almost two decades. This first widespread revival in early American history was a fervent effort to restore righteousness and religious zeal. The Great Awakening swept throughout the length and breadth of the thirteen colonies. Evangelists and itinerant preachers held services in informal settings, including homes, barns, and even pastures. The Great Awakening kindled a religious commitment that had not been felt in America for years, and it promoted greater participation by both laymen and ministers in the affairs of organized religion. It also aroused within the colonial Americans a desire to unite in a democratic order. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) wanted to be remembered for three things in his long and illustrious career as one of America's finest statesmen. He wanted to be known as the author of the Declaration of American Independence, the founding father of the University of Virginia, and the author of the statute of Virginia for religious freedom, which was adopted in 1785. Courtesy of the Library of CongressIn spite of this zeal, complete religious freedom was not achieved in America until the American Revolution enhanced the climate for religious freedom. As colonists united against the British, they discovered that their religious differences were really not important to their cause and that they could agree on the essentials of their religious beliefs.10 Furthermore, Thomas Jefferson was a fierce opponent of undue pressures upon government by organized religion. The Declaration of Independence, which he wrote, stated that man was capable of discovering correct political institutions for himself. With the new feeling of freedom that followed the Revolutionary War, several states sought to protect basic human rights, including religious liberty. Virginia was one of the first in 1785 when it adopted Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which guaranteed that no person could be forced to attend or support any church or be discriminated against because of his religious preference.11 The Constitution of the United States was signed by the Constitutional convention 17 September 1787 and the new government was put into operation in 1789. Scene of Signing of the United States Constitution by Howard Chandler Christy. Courtesy of the Architect of the Capitol. After a few years as an unsuccessful confederation of states, the United States drafted a new constitution in 1787 that was ratified in 1789. This document, which was formed "by the hands of wise men whom [the Lord] raised up unto this very purpose" (D&C 101:80), embodied both the democratic impulse for freedom and the fundamental need for order. Freedom of religion was guaranteed in the first amendment to the Constitution. The Prophet Joseph Smith stated that "the Constitution of the United States is a glorious standard; it is founded in the wisdom of God. It is a heavenly banner; it is to all those who are privileged with the sweets of liberty, like the cooling shades and refreshing waters of a great rock in a thirsty and weary land." 12 One reason this was true was because "under the Constitution the Lord could restore the gospel and reestablish his church. . . . Both were part of a greater whole. Both fit into his pattern for the latter days."13 Concurrent with the American Revolution and the establishment of the Constitution was a Second Awakening that brought about a reorientation of Christian thinking. Several new religious societies grew in strength and held a variety of beliefs: Unitarians, Universalists, Methodists, Baptists, and Disciples of Christ. Many beliefs were introduced in the new nation, including the idea that there was a need for the restoration of New Testament Christianity. Those searching for this restoration were popularly known as seekers. Many of them were ripe for the divine Restoration and became its early converts.14 Almost concurrently with the Second Great Awakening, there arose a spirit of revivalism. Itinerant preachers held spirited camp meetings among new settlers in frontier areas of the growing United States. Lonely settlers from farms and villages gathered in huge crowds to enjoy the camp meetings. Noisy but gifted preachers lent a festive air to these religious gatherings while trying to win converts to their faith.15 The Second Great Awakening also influenced the formation of voluntary associations to promote missionary work, education, moral reform, and humanitarianism. Revivals brought religious emotions to a fever pitch and aided the growth of the popular denominations, particularly the Methodists and Baptists.16 This religious awakening lasted for at least forty years, including the time of Joseph Smith's first vision. The restoration of the gospel and of the Lord's true Church could not have taken place amidst the religious intolerance in Europe and early America. It was only possible in the setting of religious liberty, reevaluation of Christian thinking, and spiritual awakening that had developed in early nineteenth-century America. The Lord's hand was evident in directing that the Restoration take place exactly when it did. According to one historian, there was a special timing to when the Restoration took place: "Its timing in 1830 was providential. It appeared at precisely the right moment in American history; much earlier or later and the Church might not have taken hold. The Book of Mormon would probably not have been published in the eighteenth century, in that still largely oral world of folk beliefs prior to the great democratic revolution that underlay the religious tumult of the early Republic. In the eighteenth century, Mormonism might have been too easily stifled and dismissed by the dominant enlightened gentry culture as just another enthusiastic folk superstition. Yet if Mormonism had emerged later, after the consolidation of authority and the spread of science in the middle decades of the nineteenth century, it might have had problems of verifying its texts and revelations."17 God knows the end from the beginning and is the author of the grand design of human history. He directed the affairs of history so that America was appropriately fertile soil for the seed of the restored gospel to be planted and tended by his chosen seer, Joseph Smith. Endnotes 1. History of the Church, 4:609. 2. Joseph Fielding Smith, The Progress of Man (Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1952), p. 166. 3. Milton V. Backman, Jr., American Religions and the Rise of Mormonism (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1965), p. 6. 4. Henry Eyster Jacobs, Martin Luther: The Hero of the Reformation, 1483-1546 (New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, Knickerbocker Press, 1973), p. 192. 5. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, comp. Bruce R. McConkie, 3 vols. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1954-56), 1:174-75. 6. See Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1942), pp. 44-45, 279, 328. 7. Smith, Progress of Man, p. 258. 8. See Edwin Scott Gaustad, A Religious History of America (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), pp. 47-55; Sydney E. Ahlstrom, "The Holy Commonwealths of New England," A Religious History of the American People (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1972), pp. 135-50. 9. See Alan Heimert, "The Great Awakening as Watershed," cited in John M. Mulder and John F. Wilson, eds., Religion in American History: Interpretive Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1978), pp. 127-44. 10. See Sidney E. Mead, "American Protestantism during the Revolutionary Epoch," in Mulder and Wilson, eds., Religion in American History, pp. 162-76. 11. The previous three paragraphs are derived from James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard, The Story of the Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976), pp. 10-11. 12. Joseph Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, sel. Joseph Fielding Smith (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976), p. 147. 13. Mark E. Petersen, The Great Prologue (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1975), p. 75. 14. See Backman, American Religions and the Rise of Mormonism, pp. 186-248. 15. See Martin E. Marty, Pilgrims in Their Own Land: 500 Years of Religion in America (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1984), p. 168. 16. See Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People, pp. 415-28. 17. Gordon S. Wood, "Evangelical America and Early Mormonism," New York History, Oct. 1980, p. 381. CHAPTER TWO Joseph Smith's New England Heritage The birthplace of Joseph Smith was Sharon township, Vermont. The granite memorial to Joseph Smith was erected and the site dedicated on 23 December 1905 by President Joseph F. Smith in commemoration of the centennial of the Prophet's birth. The monument is 38 1/2 feet high, one foot for each year of his life. The Memorial Cottage (immediately left of the monument), which was used as a visitors' center, was completed and dedicated at the same time as the monument. Time Line Date Significant Event- 1638 Robert Smith, Joseph Smith's first paternal ancestor to leave England for America, arrived in Massachusetts 1669 John Mack, Joseph Smith's first maternal ancestor to leave England for America, arrived in Massachusetts 24 Jan. 1796 Joseph Smith, Sr., married Lucy Mack 23 Dec. 1805 Joseph Smith, Jr., born in Sharon township, Windsor County, Vermont 1812-13 Seven-year-old Joseph Smith suffered complications from typhoid fever and was operated on 1816 Smiths moved from Norwich, Vermont, to Palmyra, New York We are all affected and influenced by our surroundings. We are nourished and nurtured by families and friends and respond to our environment. Joseph Smith grew up on the family farm and was almost exclusively under his family's influence. The things he learned at home were the most important legacy of his New England heritage. His parents emphasized hard work, patriotism, and personal religion. Joseph learned, listened well, and gleaned much from his heritage. During his formative years, Joseph Smith began to incorporate and manifest qualities that would help him fulfill his foreordained mission. Paternal Ancestry of Joseph Smith An examination of Joseph Smith's ancestry shows that his family possessed important character traits that were perpetuated in him. He developed strong family bonds, learned to work hard, to think for himself, to serve others, and to love liberty. He recalled, "Love of liberty was diffused into my soul by my grandfathers while they dandled me on their knees." Although not always affiliated with a church, generations of his ancestors sought to live by correct religious principles, and some anticipated that an important spiritual leader would be raised up among their posterity. Among the rolling hills about twenty miles north of Boston, Massachusetts, is the small township of Topsfield, where many of the Prophet's ancestors lived. Five generations of Smiths lived in Topsfield. The first of these was Joseph Smith's third-great-grandfather, Robert Smith, who emigrated from Topsfield, England, to Boston in 1638 while still in his teens. Robert married Mary French and, after a brief stay in nearby Rowley, settled in Topsfield, Massachusetts. They were the parents of ten children. When Robert died in 1693 he left an estate valued at 189 pounds, a comparatively large sum for the era. Samuel Smith, a son of Robert and Mary, was born in 1666. He was listed on the town and county records as a "gentleman" and apparently held a public office. He married Rebecca Curtis, and they had nine children. The Smith family marker in Pine Grove Cemetery, Topsfield, Massachusetts. Buried here are Samuel Smith; his wife, Rebecca; Samuel II; and his wife, Priscilla Gould. George A. Smith helped erect the monument to his ancestors in 1873.Samuel and Rebecca's first son was born in 1714. Samuel, Jr., was a distinguished community leader and a promoter of the American War of Independence. According to his obituary, "He was a sincere friend to the liberties of his country, and a strenuous advocate for the doctrines of Christianity." Samuel, Jr., married Priscilla Gould, who descended from one of Topsfield's founders. Priscilla died after bearing five children, and Samuel married her cousin, also named Priscilla. They had no children together, but she raised Samuel's children by his first wife, including Asael, Joseph Smith's grandfather. Asael, born in 1744, was affiliated with the established religion in New England, the Congregationalists, but he later became skeptical of organized religion. To his thinking the teachings of established churches were not reconcilable with scripture and common sense. At age twenty-three he married Mary Duty of Rowley, Massachusetts. At great sacrifice to himself and his family, Asael moved from Derryfield, New Hampshire, back to Topsfield where he worked for five years to liquidate the debts his father had been unable to pay before his death. Five generations of the Smith family lived in Topsfield: Robert Smith, Samuel Smith I, Samuel Smith II, Asael Smith, and Joseph Smith, Sr. Joseph Smith, Sr., was born in this house on 12 July 1771. The home was torn down in 1875.The Smiths remained in Topsfield until 1791 when Asael, Mary, and their eleven children moved briefly to Ipswich, Massachusetts, and then on to Tunbridge, Vermont, in quest of inexpensive, virgin land. At Tunbridge, Asael continued his community service, and during his thirty years there occupied nearly every elective office. Joseph Smith's ancestors lived in New England. Asael's philosophy agreed with that of the Universalists, who believed in Jesus Christ as a god of love who would save all of his children. Like all Universalists, Asael was more comfortable with a god who was more interested in saving than in destroying mankind. He believed that life continued after death. In an address to his family, Asael wrote: "The soul is immortal. . . . Do all to God in a serious manner. When you think of him, speak of him, pray to him, or in any way make your addresses to his great majesty, be in good earnest. . . . And as to religion, study the nature of religion, and see whether it consists in outward formalities, or in the hidden man of the heart. . . . "Sure I am my Savior, Christ, is perfect, and never will fail in one circumstance. To him I commit your souls, bodies, estates, names, characters, lives, deaths and all -and myself, waiting when he shall change my vile body and make it like his own glorious body." Asael Smith also predicted that "God was going to raise up some branch of his family to be a great benefit to mankind." Many years later when his son Joseph Smith, Sr., gave him a recently published Book of Mormon, he was vitally interested. George A. Smith recorded, "My grandfather Asael fully believed the Book of Mormon, which he read nearly through." Asael died in the fall of 1830, confident that his grandson Joseph was the long-anticipated prophet and that he had heralded in a new religious age. Mary Duty Smith outlived her husband Asael by six years. In 1836 Mary, accompanied by Elias Smith, a missionary grandson, traveled to Kirtland, Ohio, to join her children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren who had gathered there. "The meeting between the grandmother and her prophet descendant and his brother was most touching; Joseph blessed her and said she was the most honored woman on earth." She completely accepted the testimony of her grandson and fully intended to be baptized. Unfortunately, her age and health prevented this. She died on 27 May 1836, just ten days after arriving in Kirtland. Maternal Ancestry of Joseph Smith Co

  • Sources 
    1. [S11] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Unknown (Reliability: 3).

    2. [S1] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ancestral File (TM), (July 1996 (c), data as of 2 January 1996).

    3. [S12] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ancestral File (R), (Copyright (c) 1987, June 1998, data as of 5 January 1998).

    4. [S13] Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Original data: Family Tree files submitted by Ancestry members.), Ancestry Family Trees.

    5. [S10], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.Original data - Sixth Census of the United States, 1840. (NARA microfilm publication M704, 580 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record ), Year: 1840; Census Place: , Hancock, Illinois; Roll: ; Page: .
      Residence date: 1840 Residence place: Hancock, Illinois, United States

    6. [S3], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2013.Original data - Black, Susan Easton, compiler. Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1830–1848. 50 vols. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Religious Stud).
      Birth date: 23 Dec 1805 Birth place: Sharon, Windsor, Vermont, USA Death date: 27 Jun 1844 Death place: Carthage, Hancock, Illinois, USA

    7. [S4], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011.Original data - Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, 1889-1970. Louisville, Kentucky: National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Microfilm, 508 roll).
      Birth date: 1805 Birth place: Death date: 1844 Death place:

    8. [S5], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2001.Original data - Card index created by the Sons of Utah Pioneers, Salt Lake City, Utah.Original data: Card index created by the Sons of Utah Pioneers, Salt Lake City, Utah.).
      Birth date: 23 Dec 1805 Birth place: Sharon, Windsor Co. Vermont Death date: 27 Jun 1844 Death place: Carthage, Illinois

    9. [S6], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2012.Original data - Find A Grave. Find A Grave. accessed 18 January 2013.Original data: Find A Grave. Find A Grave.
      Birth date: 23 Dec 1805 Birth place: Death date: 27 Jun 1844 Death place:

    10. [S7], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2012.Original data - Find A Grave. Find A Grave. accessed 1 December 2011.Original data: Find A Grave. Find A Grave.
      Birth date: 23 Dec 1805 Birth place: Death date: 27 Jun 1844 Death place:

    11. [S8], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2013.Original data - Black, Susan Easton. Inscriptions Found on Tombstones and Monuments in Early Latter-day Saint Burial Grounds: Nauvoo, Illinois (Joseph Smith Homestead, and Pioneer Sa).
      Birth date: 23 Dec 1805 Birth place: Death date: 27 Jun 1844 Death place:

    12. [S9], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2013.Original data - Headstone Search. BillionGraves. data: Headstone Search. BillionGraves.
      Birth date: 23 Dec 1805 Birth place: Death date: 27 Jun 1844 Death place:

    13. [S4], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011.Original data - Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, 1889-1970. Louisville, Kentucky: National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Microfilm, 508 roll).
      Birth date: 1805 Birth place: Death date: 1844 Death place:

    14. [S4], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011.Original data - Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, 1889-1970. Louisville, Kentucky: National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Microfilm, 508 roll).
      Birth date: 1805 Birth place: Death date: 1844 Death place:

    15. [S4], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011.Original data - Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, 1889-1970. Louisville, Kentucky: National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Microfilm, 508 roll).
      Birth date: 1805 Birth place: Death date: 1844 Death place:

    16. [S4], Unknown, (Online publication - Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011.Original data - Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, 1889-1970. Louisville, Kentucky: National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Microfilm, 508 roll).
      Birth date: 1805 Birth place: Death date: 1846 Death place: